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The clinical and nosological significance of grief reactions in youth exposed to a shared trauma (9/11) was tested by examining whether the (1) predictors (i.e., non-loss related trauma vs. traumatic bereavement), (2) clinical correlates, (3) factorial structure, and (4) phenomenology of grief reactions are distinct from those of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 9/11-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Parental mental disorders (MD) and child early-onset disruptive behavior (DB) are well-established risk factors for poor outcomes in adolescence. However, it is not clear whether parental MD increases risk of future maladjustment among children who already display DB.
Family conflict is associated with low self-control in adolescence. Thus far research about the direction of this association is inconclusive. In this study, we sort out whether this association reflects a causal effect or whether it is explained by a common underlying cause, including genetic factors.
Randomized clinical trials of augmentation strategies for youth with treatment-resistant anxiety disorders do not exist. We present findings from an efficacy trial of attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) as an augment for this population, in comparison with attention control training (ACT).
Although several treatments have been shown to be effective in treatment of youth suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), there is a pressing need to account for the substantial variation in adolescents' response to and outcomes from these treatments.
Although adult hoarding disorder is relatively common and often debilitating, few studies have examined the phenomenology of pediatric hoarding. We examined the clinical phenomenology and response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment in youth with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without hoarding symptoms. Age was tested as a moderator across analyses given prior findings that the impact of hoarding symptoms may not become apparent until adolescence.
The importance of parenting in influencing mental health outcomes, particularly depression, during childhood and adolescence is well known. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Emotion processing impairments in children are thought to be both influenced by negative parenting behaviors, and fundamental to depression. As such, investigating the association between parenting behavior and the neural underpinnings of emotion processing in children may provide fundamental clues as to the link between parenting an...
Most research on callous-unemotional behaviors (CU) and parenting does not focus on directions of effect, and work that does so has not been genetically-informed. The present study is the first to examine potential reciprocal effects between parenting and CU in a community sample of early childhood. Use of a twin sample also allows us to distinguish child-based genetic effects from environmentally-driven effects, which is necessary before translating this research to interventions.
Unusual eye contact is a common clinical feature in ASD, yet eye tracking studies that quantify eye fixation reveal inconsistent results, possibly due to small sample sizes, varied stimuli, and considerable heterogeneity of eye-region fixation even within typical development. Goals were to examine: (1) eye-region fixation levels in a large, very young cohort; (2) the degree to which the presence of speech, hand gestures, and a geometric distractor influence eye-region fixation; and (3) possible developmenta...
Sleep disturbance may be involved in symptom progression across multiple domains of psychopathology and could represent a target for treatment development in youth. Our objective was to identify sleep patterns that longitudinally change in conjunction with psychiatric symptom severity in at-risk youth.
Treatment for childhood anxiety disorders is insufficient in many cases. Parent involvement has been examined as an augment to child-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but no studies have compared the efficaciousness of stand-alone parent-based treatment to CBT. Research implicates family accommodation in the maintenance and course of childhood anxiety. Supportive Parenting for Anxious Childhood Emotions (SPACE) is a parent-based treatment that reduces accommodation of childhood anxiety. This study c...
We estimated cumulative probabilities of onset and recurrences of child maltreatment reports from birth to age 11. Estimates were provided overall and within subcategories of race/ethnicity, gender, and subtype.
Familial recurrence risk is an important population-level measure of the combined genetic and shared familial liability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives were to estimate ASD recurrence risk among siblings and cousins by varying degree of relatedness and by sex.
Telomere length has been linked to several psychiatric conditions in children and adults. Telomere shortening is accelerated by early adversity, including maltreatment and psychosocial deprivation. These experiences also increase the risk of psychopathology in many domains. Two fundamental issues remain unresolved. The first concerns the specificity of the relations between TL and different dimensions of psychopathology; and the second relates to the direction of association between TL and psychopathology.
Parental age at birth has been shown to affect the rates of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms through which it mediates different outcomes is still lacking. We used a population-based cohort to assess differential effects of parental age on estimates of risk across pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic diso...
Despite advances in evidence-based treatments for youth depression in recent decades, overall treatment effects are modest at best, with 30-50% of youth being non-responders. Practice parameters consistently recommend systematic assessment and routine monitoring of depressive symptoms, or measurement-based care (MBC), to enhance youth depression treatment. However, the literature offers few guidelines on how to use assessment results to inform care decisions or detect real and clinically meaningful change. ...
Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is no accepted outcome measure for anxiety in this population.