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The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and books.
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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.
Black-White differences in smoking abstinence are not well understood. This trial sought to confirm previously reported differences in quitting between Blacks and Whites and identify factors underlying this difference.
Federal investment in survivorship science has grown markedly since the National Cancer Institute's creation of the Office of Cancer Survivorship in 1996. To describe the nature of this research, provide a benchmark, and map new directions for the future, a portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health-wide survivorship grants was undertaken for fiscal year 2016. Applying survivorship-relevant terms, a search was conducted using the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, A...
Bone-targeting radiotherapy with Radium-223 (Rad-223), a radioisotope emitting genotoxic alpha-radiation with limited tissue penetrance (∼100 µm), prolongs the survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Confoundingly, the clinical response to Rad-223 is often followed by detrimental relapse and progression, and whether Rad-223 causes tumor-cell directed cytotoxicity in vivo remains unclear. We hypothesized that limited radiation penetrance in situ defines outcome.
Acral melanoma is a rare type of melanoma that affects world populations irrespective of skin color and has worse survival than other cutaneous melanomas. It has relatively few single nucleotide mutations without the UV signature of cutaneous melanomas, but instead has a genetic landscape characterized by structural rearrangements and amplifications. BRAF mutations are less common than in other cutaneous melanomas, and knowledge about alternative therapeutic targets is incomplete.
Constitutional loss of function (LOF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pattern recognition receptors FPR1, TLR3, and TLR4 have previously been reported to predict oxaliplatin benefit in colorectal cancer. Confirmation of this association could substantially improve patient stratification.
Human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical screening are lacking in most lower resource settings, where approximately 80% of more than 500 000 cancer cases occur annually. Visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid application is practical but not reproducible or accurate. The objective of this study was to develop a "deep learning"-based visual evaluation algorithm that automatically recognizes cervical precancer/cancer.
Growing laboratory and animal model evidence supports the potentially carcinogenic effects of some phthalates, chemicals used as plasticizers in a wide variety of consumer products, including cosmetics, medications, and vinyl flooring. However, prospective data on whether phthalates are associated with human breast cancer risk are lacking.
Changes to mammography practice, including revised Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification guidelines and implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), may impact clinical breast density assessment. We investigated temporal trends in clinical breast density assessment among 2 990 291 digital mammography (DM) screens and 221 063 DBT screens interpreted by 722 radiologists from 144 facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. After age-standardization, ...
Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer.
As imaging technologies and treatment options continue to advance, imaging outcome measures are becoming increasingly utilized as the basis of making major decisions in new drug development and clinical practice. Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are now commonly used for subject selection, response assessment, and safety monitoring. Although quantitative measurements can have many advantages compared with subjective, qualitative endpoints, it is important to recognize that QIBs are measured with error...
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a promising new class of cancer therapy but has a high up-front cost. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CAR-T therapy among pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.
The BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS) is a hereditary tumor syndrome caused by germline pathogenic variants in BAP1 encoding a tumor suppressor associated with uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors. However, the full spectrum of tumors associated with the syndrome is yet to be determined. Improved understanding of the BAP1-TPDS is crucial for appropriate clinical management of BAP1 g...
Liquid biopsy for plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commercially available and increasingly adopted in clinical practice despite a paucity of prospective data to support its use.
The National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine sponsored a workshop on July 24 and 25, 2017 on Long-Term Survivorship after Cancer Treatment. The workshop brought together diverse stakeholders (patients, advocates, academicians, clinicians, research funders, and policymakers) to review progress and ongoing challenges since the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s seminal report on the subject of adult cancer survivors published in 2006. This commentary profiles the...
There remains debate about whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which reduces ovarian cancer risk, also reduces breast cancer risk. We examined the association between RRSO and breast cancer risk using a prospective cohort of 17 917 women unaffected with breast cancer at baseline (7.2% known carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations). During a median follow-up of 10.7 years, 1046 women were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. Modeling RRSO as a time-varying exposure, there was no associatio...
Cancer cells from different origins exhibit various basal redox statuses and thus respond differently to intrinsic or extrinsic oxidative stress. These intricate characteristics condition the success of redox-based anticancer therapies that capitalize on the ability of reactive oxygen species to achieve selective and efficient cancer cell killing.