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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics RSS

07:35 EDT 22nd May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 71 from Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin for Escherichia coli and Pasturella multocida following repeated intramuscular administration in goats.

The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin (MBF) were determined in six healthy female goats of age 1.00-1.25 years after repeated administration of MBF. The MBF was administered intramuscularly (IM) at 2 mg kg  day for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of MBF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and PK parameters were obtained using noncompartmental analysis. The MBF concentrations peaked at 1 hr, and peak concentration (C ) was 1.760 µg/ml on day 1 and 1...

Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of tiamulin in broiler chicken as influenced by different routes of administration.

The bioavailability and pharmacokinetic disposition of tiamulin in broiler chicken were investigated after administration through the crop, drinking water, and feed at 40 mg/kg body weight. Residues of tiamulin in tissues of broiler chicken were also assessed. Plasma and tissue concentrations of tiamulin were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Plasma concentration-time data were described by the non-compartmental model for all three routes, and pharmacokinetic p...

Pharmacokinetics of levamisole in the red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of levamisole were determined in red-eared slider turtles after single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration. Nine turtles received levamisole (10 mg/kg) by each route in a three-way crossover design with a washout period of 30 days. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (pretreatment), and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hr after drug administration. Plasma levamisole concentrations were determined by a ...

Alterations in activated T-cell cytokine expression in healthy dogs over the initial 7 days of twice daily dosing with oral cyclosporine.

Cyclosporine is a powerful T-cell inhibitor used in the treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases in the dog. There is limited information on how to best monitor patients on cyclosporine therapy. Currently, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays are available. Pharmacokinetic assays that measure the concentration of cyclosporine in the blood are used to assess if an appropriate drug concentration has been achieved; however, target blood drug concentrations have not been shown to reliably co...

Pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after single intramuscular administration.

This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of imidocarb, a carbanilide derivative, in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular (IM) dose of imidocarb were determined in 10 deer. A single IM injection of 3.0 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate was administered, and blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 48 hr after imidocarb administration. Plasma imidocarb concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatograph...

Pharmacokinetics of the novel COX-2 selective inhibitor vitacoxib in cats: The effects of feeding and dose.

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and dose-scaling model of vitacoxib in either fed or fasted cats following either oral or intravenous administration. The concentration of the drug was quantified by UPLC-MS/MS on plasma samples. Relevant parameters were described using noncompartmental analysis (WinNonlin 6.4 software). Vitacoxib is relatively slowly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration (2 mg/kg body weight), with a T of approximately 4.7 hr. The feeding state o...

Differential susceptibility to tetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline of the calf pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida in three growth media.

For clinical isolates of bovine Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, this study reports minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) differences for tetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline between cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium. MICs were determined according to CLSI standards and additionally using five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions. Matrix effect: (a) free drug MICs and minimum bactericidal conc...

Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and thiamphenicol in ducks.

The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) and thiamphenicol (TP) after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration was investigated in Mulard ducks. Both antibiotics were administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, and their concentrations in plasma samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental method. After IV administration, significant differences were found for the mean reside...

Pharmacokinetics of harpagoside in horses after intragastric administration of a Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) extract.

Devil's claw is used for the treatment of inflammatory symptoms and degenerative disorders in horses since many years, but without the substantive pharmacokinetic data. The pharmacokinetic parameters of harpagoside, the main active constituent of Harpagophytum procumbens DC ex Meisn., were evaluated in equine plasma after administration of Harpagophytum extract FB 8858 in an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, randomized cross-over design. Six horses received a single dose of Harpagophytum extract...

Pharmacokinetics and physiologic/behavioral effects of buprenorphine administered sublingually and intravenously to neonatal foals.

Buprenorphine is absorbed following sublingual administration, which would be a low-stress delivery route in foals. However, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics are not described in foals. Six healthy foals

Evaluation of the ability of colistin, amoxicillin (components of Potencil ), and fluoroquinolones to attenuate bacterial endotoxin- and Shiga exotoxin-mediated cytotoxicity-In vitro studies.

Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens in humans and animals causing localized and systemic infections, which often lead to acute inflammation, watery diarrhea, and hemorrhagic colitis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Shiga exotoxins (Stx) are mostly responsible for such clinical signs. Therefore, highly effective treatment of E. coli infections should include both eradication of bacteria and neutralization of their toxins. Here, for the first time, we compared the in vitro ability of common...

Determination of milk/plasma ratio and milk and plasma pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after intramuscular administration in lactating cows.

This study was conducted to determine the passage ratio of amoxicillin into milk and its pharmacokinetics in milk and plasma after intramuscular administration. Five healthy dairy cows (Holstein, weighing 450-500 kg, aged 2-4 years) were used in this study. They received single intramuscular amoxicillin at a dose of 14 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were collected prior to drug administration (0); after 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min; and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hr after administration. The pl...

Identification and quantification of domestic feline cytochrome P450 transcriptome across multiple tissues.

Understanding of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform distribution and function in the domestic feline is limited. Only a few studies have defined individual CYP isoforms across metabolically relevant tissues, hampering the ability to predict drug metabolism and potential drug-drug interactions. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), transcriptomes from the 99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative databank combined with experimentally acquired whole transcriptome sequencing of healthy, adult male (n = 2) and female (n...

Changes in Editors for JVPT.

Neuromuscular block monitoring after the administration of 1 mg/kg intravenous cis-atracurium in the anaesthetized pig.

Neuromuscular blocking agents should be included as part of a balanced anaesthetic protocol to improve anaesthetic management, although doses are not always established for each species. Cis-atracurium is a benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking agent with an intermediate duration of action devoid of significant adverse effects previously used in pigs with a wide dosage range. Cis-atracurium was administered at 1 mg/kg bolus to sixteen pigs to establish its time profile and effects. The pigs were prem...

Evaluation of pharmacokinetic properties of vitacoxib in fasted and fed horses.

The pharmacokinetic properties of vitacoxib have not been established completely; current dosage recommendations are based on clinical experiences. The primary objective of this study was to describe plasma concentrations and characterize the pharmacokinetics of vitacoxib formulation following oral administrations in horses. Also, the effect of the state of stomach contents on the absorption of vitacoxib was investigated in fed/fasted horses. Blood samples were collected prior to and at various times up to ...

The pharmacokinetics of orally administered butylscopolamine in greyhound dogs.

The oral tablet formulation of butylscopolamine, which is available without prescription, is commonly used by trainers of racing greyhounds to treat functional urethral obstruction. As medication control of butylscopolamine is therefore required for such use to ensure the integrity of greyhound racing, an administration study was performed in six greyhounds to determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered butylscopolamine. A single dose of one 10 mg butylscopolamine tablet was administered orally t...

Drug residues in poultry meat: A literature review of commonly used veterinary antibacterials and anthelmintics used in poultry.

Poultry meat is widely consumed throughout the world and production practices often include the administration of pharmaceutical products. When appropriate, extra-label drug use of medications is necessary, but scientifically derived drug withdrawal intervals must be observed so that poultry meat is not contaminated with drug residues which could pose health risks to consumers. Over the past decade, there has been increased advocacy for judicious use of antimicrobial drugs for treating food animals. Judicio...

Effects of three infusion fluids with different sodium chloride contents on steady-state serum concentrations of bromide in dogs.

Potassium bromide overdose (bromism) in the management of canine epilepsy has been known. However, a protocol to reduce bromide concentrations rapidly has not been previously established. The effects of three infusion fluids with different chloride contents on the steady-state serum concentrations of bromide in beagles were determined. After stabilization of the serum bromide concentrations, seven dogs were infused with saline (Na 154 mmol/L; Cl 154 mmol/L), lactated Ringer's (Na 131 mmol/L; Cl 110 mmol...

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of marbofloxacin after intravenous administration at different ages in llama crias, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis by Monte Carlo simulation.

In llama crias (tekes), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are major pathogens, and marbofloxacin could be a suitable choice. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg) after intravenous administration in tekes and simulate a multidose regimen; (b) to emulate pharmacokinetic profiles after single dose and steady-state conditions by Monte Carlo simulation (c) to determine the MIC of regional strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus a...

Impact of ABCB1 genotype in Collies on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-fexofenadine.

Thirty-two Collies were used to determine the impact of ABCB1 genotype and phenotype on the plasma pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine's (Fex) R- and S-enantiomers after bolus Fex administration, as human P-gp exhibits stereoselectivity. Each Collie's ABCB1 genotype and ivermectin (IVM) sensitivity (phenotype) was determined prior to study enrolment. Wild-type (WT) Collies had lower plasma concentrations of the individual enantiomers as compared to heterozygous IVM nonsensitive (HNS), heterozygous IVM-sensitiv...

Bayesian population pharmacokinetic modeling of florfenicol in pigs after intravenous and intramuscular administration.

Bayesian population pharmacokinetic models of florfenicol in healthy pigs were developed based on retrospective data in pigs either via intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration. Following i.v. administration, the disposition of florfenicol was best described by a two-compartment open model with the typical values of half-life at α phase (t ), half-life at β phase (t ), total body clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (V ) were 0.132 ± 0.0289, 2.78 ± 0.166 hr, 0.215 ± 0.0102...

Ex vivo penetration of fosfomycin into healthy and Lawsonia intracellularis-colonized swine intestinal mucosa.

Fosfomycin (FOS) is an antibiotic used, mostly in Latin America, for the treatment of lung and enteric infections of pigs. Intracellular fluids of enterocytes can act as biophase for Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of L. intracellularis in the enterocytes modifies FOS penetration. Eight healthy pigs in growth-finishing stage were used to produce healthy (group A) and L. intracellularis-col...

14 International Congress of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology held in Wroclaw, Poland, June 24-27, 2018. Guest edited by Błażej Poźniak, Marcin Świtała and Johanna Fink-Gremmels.

Preface.


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