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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of viral hepatitis RSS

06:59 EDT 26th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 197 from Journal of viral hepatitis

Efficacy and Safety of a Two-Drug Direct-Acting Antiviral Agent Regimen Ruzasvir 180 mg and Uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 Weeks in Adults with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

Ruzasvir (MK-8408, an NS5A inhibitor) and uprifosbuvir (MK-3682, a nonstructural protein 5B nucleotide inhibitor) are highly potent direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A phase III clinical trial evaluating the two-drug combination of ruzasvir 60 mg plus uprifosbuvir 450 mg suggested suboptimal efficacy in certain HCV genotypes (C-BREEZE 1; NCT02759315). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rusasvir in combination w...

High Sustained Virologic Response in Genotypes 3 and 6 with Generic NS5A Inhibitor and Sofosbuvir regimens in chronic HCV in Myanmar.

Exclusive HCV therapy clinical trials with genotype-6 patients in high prevalence areas have been sparse. We analyzed the safety and efficacy of two generic, pangenotypic NS5A/NS5B combination oral DAA regimens, primarily in genotypes 3 and 6, in a real-world setting: (1) Daclatasvir/Sofosbuvir (DCV/SOF) ± Ribavirin (RBV) and (2) Velpatasvir/Sofosbuvir (VEL/SOF ± RBV). Between December 2015 and November 2017, data from 522 patients was analyzed, 311 of whom were treated with DCV/SOF ± RBV for 12/24 weeks...

Hepatitis E during pregnancy: maternal and fetal case-fatality rates and adverse outcomes - a systematic review.

Hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy can have severe consequences for mother and child, such as vertical transmission, fulminant hepatic failure, even fetal or maternal mortality. The aim of this systematic review is to describe maternal, fetal and neonatal case-fatality rates as well as the prevalence of adverse outcomes in relation to hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL. Search terms included; Pregnant, W...

Predictive factors for not undergoing RNA testing in patients found to have hepatitis C serology and impact of an automatic alert.

The process of diagnosis and linkage to care in cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains an obstacle to disease control. The aims of this study were to evaluate predictive factors for not undergoing RNA testing among patients with positive HCV serology and impact of incorporating an automated electronic alert with recommendations in clinical practice. We collected HCV antibody tests requested from October 2011 to September 2014 to evaluate the rate of RNA testing and predictive factors for not und...

In Vitro Resistance Profile of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Velpatasvir in Genotypes 1 to 6.

Velpatasvir is a pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor which is used with sofosbuvir for treatment of infection with HCV genotypes 1 to 6. In vitro resistance studies were performed to characterize NS5A changes that might also confer reduced velpatasvir susceptibility in vivo. Resistance selection studies using HCV replicon cells for subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a identified NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at nine positions, most often 28M/S/T, 31F/I/M/P/V and 93D...

Off-therapy precipitous HBsAg decline predicts HBsAg loss after finite entecavir therapy in HBeAg-negative patients.

Cessation of nucleos(t)ide analogue (Nuc) therapy in HBeAg-negative patients may increase HBsAg loss rate in patients with sustained remission (SR) and non-retreated clinical relapsers (CR). To investigate and compare the HBsAg kinetics from end of treatment (EOT) to HBsAg loss in these patients, serial serum samples after EOT from 36 SR and 12 CR with HBsAg loss (study group) and an 1:1 matched control who remained HBsAg seropositive (control group) were assayed retrospectively for quantitative HBsAg (qHBs...

Efficacy and safety of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir with low-dose ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1a infection without cirrhosis.

Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with interferon-free direct-acting antivirals may still require ribavirin. However, ribavirin is associated with adverse events that can limit its use. This open-label, multicenter, Phase 3 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r+DSV) with low-dose ribavirin for 12 weeks in genotype 1a-infected patients without cirrhosis. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response at post-trea...

Management of HCV in Children in the Era of DAA's.

Chronic hepatitis C certainly is a global health burden in children as well as in adults. Spontaneous viral clearance can occur in early childhood but is uncommon thereafter. Although the majority of cases are asymptomatic during childhood and young adulthood, without an effective treatment, children who acquire HCV via vertical transmission can develop chronic liver disease and other complications including end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in adulthood. Efforts from worldwide health org...

Treatment and Monitoring of Children with Chronic Hepatitis C in the Pre-DAA Era: a European Survey of 38 Paediatric Specialists.

The burden of paediatric HCV infection across Europe is unknown, as are current policies regarding monitoring and treatment. This collaborative study aimed to collect aggregate data to characterise the population of ≤18-year olds with HCV infection in specialist follow up in a twelve-month period (2016) across the PENTAHep European consortium, and investigate current policies around monitoring and treatment. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was distributed in April 2017 to 50 paediatricians in 19 Europ...

Hepatitis C virus testing, liver disease assessment and direct-acting antiviral treatment uptake and outcomes in a service for people who are homeless in Sydney, Australia: The LiveRLife homelessness study.

People who are homeless have increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection risk, and are less likely to access primary healthcare. We aimed to evaluate HCV RNA prevalence, liver disease burden, linkage to care and treatment uptake and outcomes among people attending a homelessness service in Sydney. Participants were enrolled in an observational cohort study with recruitment at a homelessness service over eight liver health campaign days. Finger-stick whole-blood samples for Xpert HCV Viral Load and venepunct...

Efficacy and Safety of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Patients with Chronic HCV Infection and Psychiatric Disorders: An Integrated Analysis.

Although direct acting antivirals (DAA) for chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are highly efficacious and safe, treatment initiation is often limited in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders due to concerns over reduced treatment adherence and drug-drug interactions. Here, we report adherence, efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from an integrated analysis of registrational studies using the pangenotypic DAA regimen of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P). Patients with chronic HC...

Risk assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma development by magnetic resonance elastography in chronic hepatitis C patients who achieved sustained virological responses by direct acting antivirals.

Prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development after sustained virological response (SVR) is clinically important and the usefulness of noninvasive markers for prediction HCC have been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the prediction accuracy for HCC development by noninvasive markers. A total of 346 patients with chronic hepatitis C without history of HCC who achieved SVR through direct acting antivirals were included. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and serum fibrosis markers ...

Serum keratin-18 fragments as cell death biomarker in association with disease progression and prognosis in HBV-related cirrhosis.

Extensive hepatocyte death leads to hepatic inflammation and contributes to systemic inflammation in decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum cell death markers in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis with and without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). We studied two cohorts - cohort 1: 201 outpatients with stable chronic hepatitis B (49 cirrhosis); cohort 2: 232 inpatients with HBV-related cirrhosis admitted for AD. C...

A snapshot of virological presentation and outcome of immunosuppression-driven HBV reactivation from real clinical-practice: evidence of a relevant risk of death and evolution from silent to chronic infection.

The study was undertaken in order to provide a snapshot from real-clinical practice of virological presentation and outcome of patients developing immunosuppression-driven HBV-reactivation. 70 patients with HBV-reactivation were included (66.2% treated with rituximab, 10% with corticosteroids, and 23.8% with other immunosuppressive-drugs). Following HBV-reactivation, patients received anti-HBV treatment for a median (IQR) follow-up of 31(13-47) months. At baseline-screening, 72.9% of patients were HBsAg-neg...

Age, race and viral genotype are associated with the prevalence of Hepatitis B e antigen in children and adults with chronic Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is an important serological marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is associated with higher levels of viremia, increased risk of infectivity to others and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. We analyzed HBeAg status in a large cohort of adults and children enrolled in Cohort Studies of the Hepatitis B Research Network, long-term natural history studies of chronic HBV infection. A cross sectional analysis examined factors associated with HBeAg positivity, inclu...

New treatment option for delta virus: is a cure in sight?

Current treatment of chronic hepatitis D viral infection with interferons is poorly tolerated and effective only in a minority of patients. Despite Delta virus causing the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis no other treatments are available. After many years of inactivity there is now hope for new treatment approaches for Delta virus and some are likely to enter clinical practice in the near future. Four new treatment approaches are currently being evaluated in phase 2 studies. These involve the he...

Diabetes poses a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a population-based cohort study.

Diabetes mellitus may be a risk factor of HCC development in chronic hepatitis B infected patients and affect the all-cause mortality. This study aimed to examine whether DM was associated with the development of HCC with CHB and affected the all-cause mortality. A total of 2,966 CHB patients newly diagnosed with DM in 2000 were retrieved from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients database and used propensity scores matching based on age, sex-gender, alcohol-related liver disease, and baseline liver ...

Age-stratified anti-HAV positivity in Pune, India after two decades: Has voluntary vaccination impacted overall exposure to HAV?

The degree of transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is inversely proportional to the socioeconomic status of a community. Serosurveys conducted at Pune, India during 1982-98 documented significant reduction in HAV exposure of pediatric, higher socioeconomic status (HSS) population. Anti-HAV positivity (ELISA) in age-stratified Pune population representing HSS and lower middle socioeconomic status (LMSS) (n=1065) and infants till the age of 15months (n=690) was determined in 2017. Anti-HAV positivity in th...

Efficacy and Safety of Ruzasvir 60 mg and Uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 Weeks in Adults With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 Infection.

In clinical trials, the three-drug regimen of ruzasvir (RZR) 60 mg, uprifosbuvir (UPR) 450 mg, and grazoprevir 100 mg, with or without ribavirin has demonstrated promising efficacy and excellent tolerability across a wide range of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the two-drug combination of RZR 60 mg plus UPR 450 mg administered for 12 weeks in participants with HCV genotype (GT) 1-6 infection. In this open-label clinical trial, treatment-na...

Real-world safety and effectiveness of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin in hepatitis C virus genotype 1- and 4-infected patients with diverse comorbidities and comedications: A pooled analysis of post-marketing observational studies from 13 countries.

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir±dasabuvir±ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV) regimens show high efficacy and good tolerability in clinical trials for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1 or 4. To evaluate whether these results translate to clinical practice, data were pooled from observational studies across 13 countries. Treatment-naïve or -experienced patients, with or without cirrhosis, received OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV according to approved local labels and clinical practice. Sustained virologi...

Vitamin D deficiency and health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C.

Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, the interplay between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25-OH-D) and health-related-quality-of-life (HRQoL) in CHC subjects has never been investigated. The study aimed to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and HRQoL in CHC patients. One-hundred-fifty-five consecutive CHC patients completed the Health-Survey-Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and their serum 25-OH-D levels were evaluated. Vit...

Chronic Hepatitis B: The interplay between intrahepatic lymphocyte population and viral antigens in relation to liver damage.

In Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection, virus and immune response interplay is thought to be responsible for pathogenesis. Yet, the impact of each immune cell population and viral protein expression in liver damage is still unknown. Our aim was to study the interplay between intrahepatic immune response and viral activity in relation to CHB liver damage. Immunostaining was performed in 29 liver biopsies from untreated CHB patients to characterize liver infiltrate [Th (CD4+), CTL (CD8+), Treg (FoxP3+), Th17 ...

High prevalence and poor linkage to care of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

Blood transfusion is one of the most commonly relied upon therapies in sub-Saharan Africa. Existing safeguards recommended include systematic screening for transfusion-transmitted infections and restricted voluntary non-remunerated blood donor selection. We report the transfusion-transmitted infection screening and notification practice at a large urban blood transfusion center in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Between October 2016 and March 2017 anonymized records of all donors registered at the blood transfusio...

High rates of unprotected anal sex and use of generic direct-acting antivirals in a cohort of MSM with acute HCV infection.

The role of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) as a driver for the epidemic of hepatitis C in MSM is still debated. Timely access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) could represent an essential strategy to tackle this. Case notes of MSM diagnosed with acute hepatitis C (AHC) between July 2016 and June 2017 in a sexual health clinic in London were included. Behavioral data on sexual practices and STI monitoring in the 6 months prior to AHC diagnosis were collected. DAA routes of access and timing from AHC diag...

Hepatitis e virus in spanish donors and the necessity for screening.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents a major health problem worldwide. As the course of HEV cases is often subclinical, asymptomatic infections could represent an important source of viral spread and infection via routes such as blood donations. Before universal screening for HEV in blood donations can be implemented, studies evaluating the incidence of infection are needed to establish the potential risk of viral transmission. This is a prospective longitudinal study that included blood donors recruited at t...


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