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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of water and health RSS

01:19 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 141 from Journal of water and health

Role of filtration in managing the risk from Cryptosporidium in commercial swimming pools - a review.

Most commercial swimming pools use pressurised filters, typically containing sand media, to remove suspended solids as part of the water treatment process designed to keep water attractive, clean and safe. The accidental release of faecal material by bathers presents a poorly quantified risk to the safety of swimmers using the pool. The water treatment process usually includes a combination of maintaining a residual concentration of an appropriate biocide in the pool together with filtration to physically r...

Human urine contamination with environmental pollutants: simultaneous determination using UPLC-MS/MS.

Paraben derivatives are widely used as an antifungal, antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic products, pharmaceuticals, and food. These molecules are called endocrine disruptors (EDCs). The exposure of the human body to paraben derivatives needs further study and for this purpose 200 urine samples were collected from Tunisian men and women aged between 5 and 90 years to determine three paraben derivatives: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP) and propylparaben (PP) using ultra performance liquid chromatogr...

Virulence determinants in genetically heterogeneous populations of Aeromonads recovered from an urban lagoon.

The diversity and distribution of Aeromonas spp. associated with virulence profiles from the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon were investigated using phylogenetic analysis of gyrB/rpoB gene sequences for speciation. The concatenated gyrB/rpoB gene sequences clustered into five species: Aeromonas punctata/caviae (n = 37), A. hydrophila (n = 10), A. dhakensis (n = 16), A. jandaei (n = 1) and A. enteropelogenes/trota (n = 3). The virulence genes (atc/aerA/hlyA/asp/amp) resulted in 19 virulence profiles, distributed h...

Application of high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to identify fecal contamination sources and to complement the detection of fecal indicator bacteria in rural groundwater.

Residents in rural communities across Canada collect potable water from aquifers. Fecal contaminants from sewage and agricultural runoffs can penetrate aquifers, posing a public health risk. Standard methods for detecting fecal contamination test for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), but the presence of these do not identify sources of contamination. In contrast, DNA-based diagnostic tools can achieve this important objective. We employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput DNA s...

Sign-constrained linear regression for prediction of microbe concentration based on water quality datasets.

This study presents a novel methodology for estimating the concentration of environmental pollutants in water, such as pathogens, based on environmental parameters. The scientific uniqueness of this study is the prevention of excess conformity in the model fitting by applying domain knowledge, which is the accumulated scientific knowledge regarding the correlations between response and explanatory variables. Sign constraints were used to express domain knowledge, and the effect of the sign constraints on th...

Finding Sarcocystis spp. on the Tioman Island: 28S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing reveals nine new Sarcocystis species.

The Tioman Island of Malaysia experienced acute muscular sarcocystosis outbreaks from 2011 to 2014. So far, a previous study based on the 18S rRNA gene sequencing has reported S. singaporensis, S. nesbitti and Sarcocystis sp. YLL-2013 in water samples acquired from the island, thus confirming the waterborne nature of this emerging parasitic disease. This study aimed to improve the detection methods for Sarcocystis, in order to have a clearer picture of the true diversity of Sarcocystis species in Tioman. A ...

Variations in sensitivity to chlorine in Ecuador and US consumers: implications for community water systems.

Successful implementation of chlorination for disinfecting community water systems in developing countries faces obstacles, with rejection of chlorinous flavor as a significant factor. Determining consumers' abilities to accurately detect chlorine in treated water is important to identifying acceptable chlorination levels that are also effective for water disinfection. Chlorine detection sensitivity was tested in untrained Ecuadorian consumers with limited prior experience with chlorinated water and US cons...

Occurrence of norovirus genogroups I and II in recreational water from four beaches in Belém city, Brazilian Amazon region.

This study aimed to investigate the presence of norovirus (NoV) in recreational waters of four estuarine beaches located in Mosqueiro Island, Belém city, Brazilian Amazon, during two years of monitoring (2012 and 2013). NoV particles were concentrated on filtering membrane by the adsorption-elution method and detected by semi-nested RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing. NoV positivity was observed in 37.5% (39/104) of the surface water samples, with genogroup GI (69.2%) o...

Toward a comprehensive explanatory model of reliance on alternatives to the tap: evidence from California's retail water stores.

Building on a recent increase in scholarly attention to the problem of tap water mistrust and resulting negative health impacts, we examine the relationship between neighborhood reliance on tap water alternatives and a range of explanatory factors. We model retail water store locations as a proxy for reliance on tap water alternatives in urbanized neighborhoods across California. Our study is unique in its inclusion of variables representing both compliance with primary and secondary water quality standards...

Emerging pathogens and deliberate attacks on European water supplies: a scenario planning workshop.

Microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is an ever-present concern for water utility managers. Most such threats are routine, well-recognised and described. Therefore, they can usually be prevented using standard protection measures. Incidents involving emerging pathogens and malicious attacks are inherently less predictable. In a multi-stage process over one day, participants with backgrounds in microbiology, medicine, infrastructure, data analysis, environmental or public health and facil...

Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals in raw, finished, and drinking water from seven large river basins in China.

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the drinking water is a growing concern in China. In this study, we determined the concentration and distribution of 59 selected pharmaceuticals in raw, finished, and tap water samples from 79 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in 15 cities, encompassing seven large river basins in China, using solid-phase extraction pretreatment and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Forty-seven pharmaceuticals were detected in raw water...

Assessment, control, and prevention of microbiological and chemical hazards in seasonal swimming pools of the Versilia district (Tuscany, central Italy).

Although in Europe the quality of swimming pools (SPs) is dictated by regulations, microbiological and chemical hazards are described in the literature. Environmental bacteria or toxic disinfection by-product (DBP) compounds may indeed be recovered in waters even after disinfection. We evaluated the water quality from 26 outdoor seasonal SPs of the Versilia district, according to requirements of Regional Decree 54R/2015. In spring 2017, supply and reinstatement waters were collected after shock hyperchlorin...

Salmonella and the changing environment: systematic review using New York State as a model.

Salmonella is a public health concern, for which a complex interplay between host, agent, and environment exists. An improved understanding of causal processes can be used to better gauge the causes and trajectory of Salmonella in a changing environment. This would be useful in determining the impact of climate change on the New York State (NYS) environment, the effect of climate change on Salmonella in NYS, factors contributing to Salmonella vulnerability in humans, and aspects of climate change and Salmon...

Analysis of building plumbing system flushing practices and communications.

Drinking water distribution system contamination incidents can prompt public agencies and drinking water utilities to issue do-not-drink and do-not-use advisories. After the contaminant is cleared from distribution mains, consumers are often directed to flush their plumbing. However, little validated guidance and few evaluated communications strategies are available on using flushing to decontaminate building water systems. Additionally, limited data support the effectiveness of current practices and recomm...

Turbidity reduction in drinking water by coagulation-flocculation with chitosan polymers.

Turbidity reduction by coagulation-flocculation in drinking water reduces microbes and organic matter, increasing effectiveness of downstream treatment. Chitosan is a promising household water coagulant, but needs parameters for use. This study tested the effects of chitosan dose, molecular weight (MW), degree of deacetylation (DD), and functional groups on bentonite and kaolinite turbidity reduction in model household drinking water. Higher MW or DD produced greater reductions. Highest reductions were at d...

Survey of US wastewater for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

A survey for antibiotic-resistant (AR) Escherichia coli in wastewater was undertaken by collecting samples from primary clarifiers and secondary effluents from seven geographically dispersed US wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were collected at each WWTP in cool and summer months and cultured using selective media. The resulting isolates were characterized for resistance to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime, presence of carbapenemase and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)...

Variability of residual chlorine in swimming pool water and determination of chlorine consumption for maintaining hygienic safety of bathers with a simple mass balance model.

Trial-and-error chlorination as a conventional practice for swimming pool water disinfection may fail to consistently maintain the pool's residual chlorine within regulatory limits. This study explored the variability of residual chlorine and other common water quality parameters of two sample swimming pools and examined the potential of using a mass balance model for proactive determination of chlorine consumption to better secure the hygienic safety of bathers. A lightly loaded Pool 1 with a normalized ba...

Validation and in-field testing of a new on-site qPCR system for quantification of Legionella pneumophila according to ISO/TS 12869:2012 in HVAC cooling towers.

Legionella pneumophila, found in engineered water systems such as HVAC cooling towers, poses a significant public health risk. Culture, though routinely used to quantify L. pneumophila, has several disadvantages including long turnaround time, low sensitivity, and inter-laboratory variability. In this study, we validated the performance of an on-site quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection system for L. pneumophila in accordance with International Standards Organization Technical Specificati...

Kinetics of photocatalytic removal of imidacloprid from water by advanced oxidation processes with respect to nanotechnology.

In this study, the kinetics of photocatalytic removal of imidacloprid, a systemic chloronicotinoid insecticide, from water using two advanced oxidation systems (ZnO(normal)/HO/artificial sunlight and ZnO(nano)/HO/artificial sunlight) were investigated. Moreover, the effects of pH, insecticide concentration, catalyst concentration, catalyst particle size, and water type on the photocatalytic removal of imidacloprid were evaluated. Furthermore, total mineralization of imidacloprid under these advanced oxidati...

Advancing performance evaluation standards for household water treatment technologies.

Diarrheal illnesses and fatalities continue to be major issues in many regions throughout the world. Household water treatment (HWT) technologies (including both point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) treatment solutions) have been shown as able to deliver safe water in many low-income communities. However, as shown herein, there are important inconsistencies in protocols employed for validating performance of HWTs. The WHO does not stipulate influent concentration as a parameter that could influence r...

Evaluation of adaptive low cost solar water pasteurization device for providing safe potable water in rural households.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a simplified, low cost, pasteurization device in inactivating the diarrheal pathogens present in pond/lake/river water in order to provide safe potable water to people living in the rural areas of low resource countries. In this process, water in polyethylene bags was exposed to sunshine, where UV radiation emissions and heat absorption from the sunshine occurs simultaneously, and maintaining the heating at

Molecular detection of human adenovirus in urban wastewater in Egypt and among children suffering from acute gastroenteritis.

Incidence of enteric viruses in sewage, the efficacy of wastewater treatment plants to remove these viruses, and health effects from their release into the surface water are very important environmental issues in the microbiology field. One of the most pathogenic enteric viruses is adenovirus which can cause a serious disease such as gastroenteritis with low grade fever and mild dehydration in humans. In this study we performed qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of HAdV on 60 stool samples...

Diversion and phylogenetic relatedness of filterable bacteria from Norwegian tap and bottled waters.

Numerous articles have documented the existence of filterable bacteria. Where filtration is the chosen method of sterilization for medicinal or media components, these bacteria will by definition render products non-sterile. They may further represent a health hazard to the end user. A wide-range of bacterial genera were found in bottled and tap water filtrates from 0.2 μm filters, including genera housing opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Methylobacterium) and endospore formers (Paenibacillus). Two municipal ...

Influence of container cleanliness, container disinfection with chlorine, and container handling on recontamination of water collected from a water kiosk in a Kenyan slum.

The study assessed whether using clean containers that had been disinfected with chlorine at a water kiosk in the Kangemi slum in Nairobi reduced recontamination of treated water during drinking transport and storage. At the same time, the impacts of container handling and hygiene conditions at the household level on water quality changes during storage were evaluated. Data were collected during interviews with 135 households using either new, clean Maji Safi containers (MSCs) that had been disinfected with...

Implications of soils around domestic water points in the spread of intestinal parasites in the city of Yaounde (Cameroon).

To determine the role of soils in dissemination of enteric protozoan cysts and intestinal eggs and/or larvae of helminths, a study was carried out on muddy soils around springs and wells of six districts in Yaounde, Cameroon from February to July 2015. Protozoan cysts and helminth eggs and larvae were observed microscopically after concentration by standard scientific methods. Flagellated enteric protozoa cysts were detected at an average density of 245 ± 145 cysts/L for Giardia intestinalis, 308 ±190 cys...


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