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Airway mucin overproduction is the hallmark risk factor of asthma, which is associated with the reduction of lung function. An aberrant mucin expression is responsible for airway obstruction due to its high viscous characteristics. Among the mucins discovered, MUC5AC is the prime mucin of airway epithelia. Nowadays, mucins induced asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a great concern all over the world. This review focuses on the effects of natural compounds that can be beneficial to e...
Cardiovascular diseases may originate from suboptimal intrauterine environments. We aimed to examine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE) on heart basal hemodynamic parameters and tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, in PAE adult females and males.
Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disorder disease, is closely associated with hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Upregulated miR-223 has been found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with psoriasis and from psoriatic skin. However, its role in keratinocytes remains unknown. We thus aimed to investigate the function of miR-223 in psoriasis. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a crucial keratinocyte trigger in the T-cell-mediated immune response to psoriasis. We found miR-223 to be overexpresse...
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious neurological disease without efficacious drugs. Anti-apoptosis and suppressing dendritic/synaptic degeneration in the anterior horn are essential targets after SCI. Previous studies found that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) significantly protected rats after SCI. However, its potential effects and mechanisms remain unknown. The BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways evidently contribute to the SCI recovery. Currently, we mainly investigate the potential effects and mechanism of...
Ovarian aging is a natural physiological phenomenon accompanied by follicular atresia as well as the decline of oocyte quality. Moxibustion is a form of traditional Chinese medicine therapy which has been reported to treat many aging-related problems and improve immune defense.
The innate immune response induced by bacterial peptidoglycan peptides, such as γ-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP), is an important host defense system. However, little is known about the innate immune response in the lung alveolar region. In this study, we examined induction of the innate immune response by iE-DAP in human alveolar epithelial cell lines, NCI-H441 (H441) and A549.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The shortage of donor hearts to treat end-stage heart failure patients is a critical problem. An average of 3500 heart transplant surgeries are performed globally, half of these transplants are performed in the US alone. Stem cell therapy is growing rapidly as an alternative strategy to repair or replace the damaged heart tissue after a myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, the relatively poor survival of the stem cells in ...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains one of the greatest global concerns. Current treatment of AD - the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - provides temporary improvement of cognitive functions, but do not affect the core of the underlying pathological process. There is still the need for alternative approaches, preferably ones based on the upstream events in the AD pathogenesis. The nature of AD pathogenesis remains complicated and not entirely explained. It is assumed to comprise of many interrelated events whi...
Hypobaric hypoxia (HH), linked to oxidative stress, impairs cardiac function. We synthesized a novel nitronyl nitroxide radical, an HPN derivative (HEPN) and investigated the protective effects of HEPN and HPN against HH-induced heart injury in mice and the underlying mechanisms of action.
In this study we aimed to explore the specific effect and mechanism of oxymatrine on neonatal rats hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
Hair follicles play a critical role in the process of hair growth. The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are an important component in the hair follicle regeneration and growth. This study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the growth of cultured mink hair follicles and DPCs.
Blockage of the urinary tract is often connected with renal function impediment, including reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the power to control sodium as well as water elimination through urination. Melatonin, known to be the primary product of the pineal gland, prevents renal damage caused by ischemic reperfusion. However, the effects of melatonin on urinary obstruction, as well as release of obstruction induced kidney injury are still largely unknown. The aim of present study was to inv...
HAPE remains the most common lethal high-altitude disease. Although its pathophysiology and other associated causal factors have been partially uncovered along with some potential biomarker proteins, it has not been completely elucidated. A major hindrance to improving the understanding of HAPE pathophysiology and associated molecular events has been the absence of a quick, reliable and definitive animal model of HAPE. This study is aimed at development of a rapid and reliable SD rat model of high altitude ...
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes capable of degrading nearly all types of extracellular matrix. They perform a wide range of roles in physiological processes, which is the reason for their strict regulation by numerous mechanisms including natural tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). Research only started to shed light on more troublesome aspects of MMPs function, like cancer progression, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, ageing. Moreover, their profound role in diabetes is being ...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopamine cells. It is suggested that exercise could be employed as a non-pharmacological approach for reducing the risk of PD incidence. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 4-week Mild-intensity (MIEx) and progressive exercise (PEx) protocols on rotational behavior, GFAP, DA, TH, MANF, CDNF and NGF levels in striatum of parkinsonian rats induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.
Bile acids (BAs) as a kind of endogenous and signaling molecules altered under the circumstance of T2DM, which could impact on the relevant pathways to further affect the glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and might be associated with the T2DM development and restoration. However, the potential mechanisms still need more various and multifaceted studies. Here, we explored the alterations of BAs features and their mechanisms, and discussed the potential effects of the altered BAs on the glucose metabol...
Autophagy is an important intracellular process to maintain homeostasis and studies have shown the key role of autophagy in modulating the functions of reproductive system. Alongside with it, the activation of autophagy has also been found to regulate a number of important processes involved in in vitro fertilization including degeneration of granulosa cells and oocyte defects in obese and aging women; apoptosis of oocytes during vitrification-warming; quality and viability of embryo; developmental competen...
In addition to potentially progressing to either cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently the leading indication for liver transplantation. Nintedanib has been clinically used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for many years, but its effects in an animal model of NASH have not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nintendanib on NASH in choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD)-fed mice.
The function of liver is highly dependent on mitochondria producing ATP for biosynthetic and detoxifying properties. Accumulating evidence indicates that most hepatic disorders are characterized by profound mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only exhibits mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and depletion, but also releases mtDNA. mtDNA is a closed circular molecule encoding 13 of the polypeptides of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Extensive mtDNA lesions could exacerbate mitochondri...
Radio- and chemotherapy are the most common cancer treatment modalities. They cause acute and late side effects on normal tissues, which is a burden for delivery of a high dose of radiation or drugs on tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells achieve adaptive responses to subsequent doses of radiation and chemotherapy, leading to tumor resistance and accelerated repopulation. Resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy can occur following adaptive responses, which itself is due to the release of large numbers ...
Sitagliptin is an oral hypoglycemic drug that acts by selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) enzyme.
Previous studies have demonstrated that transcriptional silencing of miRNAs due to DNA hypermethylation is associated with different pathologies. It has also been reported that abnormal expression of miR-140-5p and miR-146a is linked to osteoarthritis (OA) progression. In this study, we investigated the role of DNA methylation on miR-140-5p and miR-146a expression in OA.
This study investigates the insulin sensitizer effect of carbenoxolone (CBX) and potentially involved peripheral mechanisms.
The present study aimed to verify changes in cerebellar and plasmatic expression of miRNAs after the chronic consumption of ethanol and caffeine in the UChB rat, an experimental model for alcoholism.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively control gene expression at the translational level. There are compelling evidences indicating that the expression of let-7e is downregulated in various cancers, however, the role of let-7e in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mechanism has been remained unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role of let-7e in regulating CRC cells phenotypes.