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PubMed Journal Database | Microbiology spectrum RSS

02:59 EDT 25th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 90 from Microbiology spectrum

Extracellular Matrix Interactions with Gram-Positive Pathogens.

The main strategies used by pathogenic bacteria to infect eukaryotic tissue include their adherence to cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), the subsequent colonization and invasion as well as the evasion of immune defences. A variety of structurally and functionally characterized adhesins and binding proteins of gram-positive bacteria facilitate these processes by specifically recognizing and interacting with various components of the host ECM, including different collagens, fibronectin and other macro...

Colonization of the Human Nose and Interaction with Other Microbiome Members.

is usually regarded as a bacterial pathogen due to its ability to cause multiple types of invasive infections. Nevertheless, colonizes about 30% of the human population asymptomatically in the nares, either transiently or persistently, and can therefore be regarded a human commensal as well, although carriage increases the risk of infection. Whereas many facets of the infection processes have been studied intensively, little is known about the commensal lifestyle of . Recent studies highlight the major rol...

Noncoding RNA.

Regulatory RNAs, present in many bacterial genomes and particularly in pathogenic bacteria such as , control the expression of genes encoding virulence factors or metabolic proteins. They are extremely diverse and include noncoding RNAs (sRNA), antisense RNAs, and some 5' or 3' untranslated regions of messenger RNAs that act as sensors for metabolites, tRNAs, or environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pH). In this review we focus on specific examples of sRNAs of that illustrate how numerous sRNAs and ...

Using a Systems Biology Approach To Study Host-Pathogen Interactions.

The rapid development of genomics and other "-omics" approaches has significantly impacted how we have investigated host-pathogen interactions since the turn of the millennium. Technologies such as next-generation sequencing, stem cell biology, and high-throughput proteomics have transformed the scale and sensitivity with which we interrogate biological samples. These approaches are impacting experimental design in the laboratory and transforming clinical management in health care systems. Here, we review t...

Cellular Imaging of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens.

The spatial dimensions of host cells and bacterial microbes are perfectly suited to being studied by microscopy techniques. Therefore, cellular imaging has been instrumental in uncovering many paradigms of the intracellular lifestyle of microbes. Initially, microscopy was used as a qualitative, descriptive tool. However, with the onset of specific markers and the power of computer-assisted image analysis, imaging can now be used to gather quantitative data on biological processes. This makes imaging a drivi...

Single-Cell Metabolism and Stress Responses in Complex Host Tissues.

Systemic infections are a major cause of mortality worldwide and are becoming increasingly untreatable. Recent single-cell data from a mouse model of typhoid fever show that the host immune system actually eradicates many cells, while other organisms thrive at the same time in the same tissue, causing lethal disease progression. The surviving cells have highly heterogeneous metabolism, growth rates, and exposure to various stresses. Emerging evidence suggests that similarly heterogeneous host-pathogen e...

Biological and Structural Diversity of Type IV Secretion Systems.

The bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are a functionally diverse superfamily of secretion systems found in many species of bacteria. Collectively, the T4SSs translocate DNA and monomeric and multimeric protein substrates to bacterial and eukaryotic cell types. T4SSs are composed of two large subfamilies, the conjugation machines and the effector translocators that transmit their cargoes through establishment of direct donor-target cell contacts, and a third small subfamily capable of importing or ...

Pathogenesis: New Insights through Advanced Methodologies.

is a genus of Gram-negative enteropathogens that have long been, and continue to be, an important public health concern worldwide. Over the past several decades, spp. have also served as model pathogens in the study of bacterial pathogenesis, and has become one of the best-studied pathogens on a molecular, cellular, and tissue level. In the arms race between and the host immune system, has developed highly sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host cell processes in order to promote infection, escape immu...

The Endosymbionts.

The endosymbionts encompass a large group of intracellular bacteria of biomedical and veterinary relevance, closely related to , , and . This genus of Gram-negative members of the does not infect vertebrates but is instead restricted to ecdysozoan species, including terrestrial arthropods and a family of parasitic filarial nematodes, the Onchocercidae. The profoundly impact not only the ecology and evolution but also the reproductive biology of their hosts, through a wide range of symbiotic interactions....

Electron Cryotomography of Bacterial Secretion Systems.

In biology, function arises from form. For bacterial secretion systems, which often span two membranes, avidly bind to the cell wall, and contain hundreds of individual proteins, studying form is a daunting task, made possible by electron cryotomography (ECT). ECT is the highest-resolution imaging technique currently available to visualize unique objects inside cells, providing a three-dimensional view of the shapes and locations of large macromolecular complexes in their native environment. Over the past 1...

The Interplay between Serovar Typhimurium and the Intestinal Mucosa during Oral Infection.

Bacterial infection results in a dynamic interplay between the pathogen and its host. The underlying interactions are multilayered, and the cellular responses are modulated by the local environment. The intestine is a particularly interesting tissue regarding host-pathogen interaction. It is densely colonized by commensal microbes and a portal of entry for ingested pathogens. This necessitates constant monitoring of microbial stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis during encounters with benign microbiota ...

Customizing Host Chromatin: a Bacterial Tale.

Successful bacterial colonizers and pathogens have evolved with their hosts and have acquired mechanisms to customize essential processes that benefit their lifestyle. In large part, bacterial survival hinges on shaping the transcriptional signature of the host, a process regulated at the chromatin level. Modifications of chromatin, either on histone proteins or on DNA itself, are common targets during bacterium-host cross talk and are the focus of this article.

Modeling Infectious Diseases in Mice with a "Humanized" Immune System.

Human immune system (HIS) mice are created by transplanting human immune cells or their progenitor cells into highly immunodeficient recipient mouse hosts, thereby "humanizing" their immune systems. Over past decades, the field of HIS mice has evolved rapidly, as modifications of existing immunodeficient mouse strains have been developed, resulting in increasing levels of human tissue engraftment as humanization is optimized. Current HIS mouse models not only permit elevated levels of human cell engraftment...

Immune Evasion by .

has become a serious threat to human health. In addition to having increased antibiotic resistance, the bacterium is a master at adapting to its host by evading almost every facet of the immune system, the so-called immune evasion proteins. Many of these immune evasion proteins target neutrophils, the most important immune cells in clearing infections. The neutrophil attacks pathogens via a plethora of strategies. Therefore, it is no surprise that has evolved numerous immune evasion strategies at almost e...

Filamentous Hemagglutinin, a Model for the Two-Partner Secretion Pathway.

Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms to translocate proteins from the cytoplasm, where they are synthesized, to the cell surface or extracellular environment or directly into other cells, where they perform their ultimate functions. Type V secretion systems (T5SS) use β-barrel transporter domains to export passenger domains across the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Distinct among T5SS are type Vb or two-partner secretion (TPS) systems in which the transporter and passenger are separate proteins...

Genetics of Group A Streptococci.

(group A streptococcus) is remarkable in terms of the large number of diseases it can cause in humans and for the large number of streptococcal factors that have been identified as potential virulence determinants for these diseases. A challenge is to link the function of potential virulence factors to the pathogenesis of specific diseases. An exciting advance has been the development of sophisticated genetic systems for the construction of loss-of-function, conditional, hypomorphic, and gain-of-function mu...

The Dynamic Structures of the Type IV Pilus.

Type IV pilus (T4P)-like systems have been identified in almost every major phylum of prokaryotic life. They include the type IVa pilus (T4aP), type II secretion system (T2SS), type IVb pilus (T4bP), Tad/Flp pilus, Com pilus, and archaeal flagellum (archaellum). These systems are used for adhesion, natural competence, phage adsorption, folded-protein secretion, surface sensing, swimming motility, and twitching motility. The T4aP allows for all of these functions except swimming and is therefore a good model...

Type VI Secretion Systems and the Gut Microbiota.

The human colonic microbiota is a dense ecosystem comprised of numerous microbes, including bacteria, phage, fungi, archaea, and protozoa, that compete for nutrients and space. Studies are beginning to reveal the antagonistic mechanisms that gut bacteria use to compete with other members of this ecosystem. In the healthy human colon, the majority of the Gram-negative bacteria are of the order . Proteobacteria, such as , are numerically fewer but confer important properties to the host, such as colonization ...

Toxins and Superantigens of Group A Streptococci.

(i.e., the group A ) is a human-restricted and versatile bacterial pathogen that produces an impressive arsenal of both surface-expressed and secreted virulence factors. Although surface-expressed virulence factors are clearly vital for colonization, establishing infection, and the development of disease, the secreted virulence factors are likely the major mediators of tissue damage and toxicity seen during active infection. The collective exotoxin arsenal of is rivaled by few bacterial pathogens and inclu...

Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development.

Sortases cleave short peptide motif sequences at the C-terminal end of secreted surface protein precursors and either attach these polypeptides to the peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria or promote their assembly into pilus structures that are also attached to peptidoglycan. Sortase A, the enzyme first identified in the human pathogen , binds LPXTG motif sorting signals, cleaves between threonine (T) and glycine (G) residues, and forms an acyl enzyme between its active-site cysteine thiol and the carbox...

Gram-Positive Type IV Pili and Competence.

Type IV pili (T4P) are remarkable bacterial surface appendages that carry out a range of functions. Various types of T4P have been identified in bacteria and archaea, making them almost universal structures in prokaryotes. T4P are best characterized in Gram-negative bacteria, in which pilus biogenesis and T4P-mediated functions have been studied for decades. Recent advances in microbial whole-genome sequencing have provided ample evidence for the existence of T4P also in many Gram-positive species. However,...

Platforms and Analytical Tools Used in Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Microbial Genotyping Procedures.

In the decade and a half since the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the technical feasibility, cost, and overall utility of sequencing have changed dramatically, including applications for infectious disease epidemiology. Massively parallel sequencing technologies have decreased the cost of sequencing by more than 6 orders or magnitude over this time, with a corresponding increase in data generation and complexity. This review provides an overview of the basic principles, chemistry, and ope...

Phase Variation of .

undergoes phase variation or spontaneous, reversible phenotypic variation in colony opacity, encapsulation, and pilus expression. The variation in colony opacity appears to occur in all strains, whereas the switches in the production of the capsule and pilus have been observed in several strains. This chapter elaborates on the variation in colony opacity since this phenomenon has been extensively characterized. produces opaque and transparent colonies on the translucent agar medium. The different colony ph...

Biology of Hand-to-Hand Bacterial Transmission.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate hand hygiene among hospital staff is the best measure to prevent hand-to-hand bacterial transmission. The skin microbiome is conditioned by the individual physiological characteristics and anatomical microenvironments. Furthermore, it is important to separate the autochthonous resident microbiota from the transitory microbiota that we can acquire after interactions with contaminated surfaces. Two players participate in the hand-to-hand bacterial transmission ...

Fulminant Staphylococcal Infections.

Fulminant staphylococcal infection indicates an explosive, intense, and severe infection occurring in a patient whose previous condition and antecedent would never have caused any anticipation of life-threatening development. This includes necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and to some extent toxic shock syndrome and infective endocarditis. In the three former diseases, toxin production plays a major role whereas in the latter (fulminant presentation of infective endocarditis), association with a...


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