PubMed Journal Database | Molecular cell RSS

10:46 EDT 25th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 545 from Molecular cell

The Long and the Short of the RNA Polymerase C-Terminal Domain and Phase Separation.

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lu et al. (2019) analyze the role of the length and sequence complexity of the RNA polymerase II unstructured C-terminal domain in animal viability, development, and the dynamics of RNA polymerase II in vivo.

Context Matters: RNF168 Connects with PALB2 to Rewire Homologous Recombination in BRCA1 Haploinsufficiency.

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Zong et al. (2019) reveal RNF168-driven chromatin ubiquitylation as a key back-up mechanism to sustain homologous recombination (HR) independently of BRCA1. These findings provide new clues to carcinogenesis and cancer therapy in BRCA1 heterozygous mutation carriers.

TARGET-seq Takes Aim at Cancer Evolution through Multi-omics Single-Cell Genotyping and Transcriptomics.

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Rodriguez-Meira et al. (2019) present TARGET-seq, an elegant single-cell method that genotypes somatic mutations and captures whole transcriptomes in the same tumor cells, thus paving the way to directly link somatic mutations with resulting transcriptional phenotypes in clonally diverse cancer populations.

Craving for Introns.

Parenteau et al. (2019) and Morgan et al. (2019) showed that a subset of introns can work as non-coding RNAs that trap the spliceosome and decrease global splicing upon nutrient depletion in yeast, providing a new example of the functionality of introns, molecules that were previously assumed to be useless.

MST1 Negatively Regulates TNFα-Induced NF-κB Signaling through Modulating LUBAC Activity.

The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway plays a central role in inflammatory and immune responses, with aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling being implicated in various human disorders. Here, we show that mammalian ste20-like kinase 1 (MST1) is a previously unrecognized component of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor 1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC) and attenuates TNFα-induced NF-κB signaling. Genetic ablation of MST1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages potentiated th...

Fluctuations in p53 Signaling Allow Escape from Cell-Cycle Arrest.

Apoptotic Caspases Suppress Type I Interferon Production via the Cleavage of cGAS, MAVS, and IRF3.

Viral infection triggers host defenses through pattern-recognition receptor-mediated cytokine production, inflammasome activation, and apoptosis of the infected cells. Inflammasome-activated caspases are known to cleave cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Here, we found that apoptotic caspases are critically involved in regulating both DNA and RNA virus-triggered host defenses, in which activated caspase-3 cleaved cGAS, MAVS, and IRF3 to prevent cytokine overproduction. Caspase-3 was exclusively required in hum...

Obstacles to Scanning by RNase E Govern Bacterial mRNA Lifetimes by Hindering Access to Distal Cleavage Sites.

The diversity of mRNA lifetimes in bacterial cells is difficult to reconcile with the relaxed cleavage site specificity of RNase E, the endonuclease most important for governing mRNA degradation. This enzyme has generally been thought to locate cleavage sites by searching freely in three dimensions. However, our results now show that its access to such sites in 5'-monophosphorylated RNA is hindered by obstacles-such as bound proteins or ribosomes or coaxial small RNA (sRNA) base pairing-that disrupt the pat...

The Ribosome Cooperates with a Chaperone to Guide Multi-domain Protein Folding.

Multi-domain proteins, containing several structural units within a single polypeptide, constitute a large fraction of all proteomes. Co-translational folding is assumed to simplify the conformational search problem for large proteins, but the events leading to correctly folded, functional structures remain poorly characterized. Similarly, how the ribosome and molecular chaperones promote efficient folding remains obscure. Using optical tweezers, we have dissected early folding events of nascent elongation ...

Large-Scale, Quantitative Protein Assays on a High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Chip.

High-throughput DNA sequencing techniques have enabled diverse approaches for linking DNA sequence to biochemical function. In contrast, assays of protein function have substantial limitations in terms of throughput, automation, and widespread availability. We have adapted an Illumina high-throughput sequencing chip to display an immense diversity of ribosomally translated proteins and peptides and then carried out fluorescence-based functional assays directly on this flow cell, demonstrating that a single...

Retraction Notice to: Methyl-CpG Binding Protein MBD1 Couples Histone H3 Methylation at Lysine 9 by SETDB1 to DNA Replication and Chromatin Assembly.

Liquid Active Zones for Controlling the Phases of Synaptic Transmission.

Wu et al. (2019) establish that the active zone proteins RIM and RIM-BP undergo liquid-liquid phase separation to tether Ca channels. This important finding sets a new framework to study assembly and function of the presynaptic nerve terminal.

The Yeast Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Porin: More IMPORTant than Just Metabolite Transport.

Porin is crucial for metabolite flux in mitochondria. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sakaue et al. (2019) and Ellenrieder et al. (2019) describe an unexpected role for Porin in mitochondrial protein import by regulating the oligomeric state of the major protein import gate, the TOM complex, and the inner membrane insertion of metabolite carriers.

Sequencer Hacking Unlocks Quantitative Protein Studies.

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Layton et al. (2019) repurpose a common next-generation DNA sequencer to enable high-throughput protein biochemical studies, identifying improved sequence variants for stronger protein-protein interactions and dissecting the contributions of specific amino acids to enzymatic activity.

ADAR1: A New Target for Immuno-oncology Therapy.

Three recent studies by Ishizuka et al. (2019), Liu et al. (2019), and Gannon et al. (2018) show that deleting RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 could induce higher cell lethality and render tumor cells more vulnerable to immunotherapy, pinpointing ADAR1 as a new immuno-oncology target.

Global Positioning System: Understanding Long Noncoding RNAs through Subcellular Localization.

The localization of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) within the cell is the primary determinant of their molecular functions. LncRNAs are often thought of as chromatin-restricted regulators of gene transcription and chromatin structure. However, a rich population of cytoplasmic lncRNAs has come to light, with diverse roles including translational regulation, signaling, and respiration. RNA maps of increasing resolution and scope are revealing a subcellular world of highly specific localization patterns and hin...

Mitotic CDK Promotes Replisome Disassembly, Fork Breakage, and Complex DNA Rearrangements.

DNA replication errors generate complex chromosomal rearrangements and thereby contribute to tumorigenesis and other human diseases. One mechanism that triggers these errors is mitotic entry before the completion of DNA replication. To address how mitosis might affect DNA replication, we used Xenopus egg extracts. When mitotic CDK (Cyclin B1-CDK1) is used to drive interphase egg extracts into a mitotic state, the replicative CMG (CDC45/MCM2-7/GINS) helicase undergoes ubiquitylation on its MCM7 subunit, depe...

Bispecific Forkhead Transcription Factor FoxN3 Recognizes Two Distinct Motifs with Different DNA Shapes.

Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding DNA recognition sites in genomic regulatory regions. Although most forkhead TFs recognize a canonical forkhead (FKH) motif, RYAAAYA, some forkheads recognize a completely different (FHL) motif, GACGC. Bispecific forkhead proteins recognize both motifs, but the molecular basis for bispecific DNA recognition is not understood. We present co-crystal structures of the FoxN3 DNA binding domain bound to the FKH and FHL sites, respectively. FoxN3 adopt...

Continued Activity of the Pioneer Factor Zelda Is Required to Drive Zygotic Genome Activation.

Reprogramming cell fate during the first stages of embryogenesis requires that transcriptional activators gain access to the genome and remodel the zygotic transcriptome. Nonetheless, it is not clear whether the continued activity of these pioneering factors is required throughout zygotic genome activation or whether they are only required early to establish cis-regulatory regions. To address this question, we developed an optogenetic strategy to rapidly and reversibly inactivate the master regulator of gen...

Physical Basis for the Loading of a Bacterial Replicative Helicase onto DNA.

In cells, dedicated AAA+ ATPases deposit hexameric, ring-shaped helicases onto DNA to initiate chromosomal replication. To better understand the mechanisms by which helicase loading can occur, we used cryo-EM to determine sub-4-Å-resolution structures of the E. coli DnaB⋅DnaC helicase⋅loader complex with nucleotide in pre- and post-DNA engagement states. In the absence of DNA, six DnaC protomers latch onto and crack open a DnaB hexamer using an extended N-terminal domain, stabilizing this conformation...

CRISPR-Cas Systems Reduced to a Minimum.

In two recent studies in Molecular Cell, Wright et al. (2019) report complete spacer integration by a Cas1 mini-integrase and Edraki et al. (2019) describe accurate genome editing by a small Cas9 ortholog with less stringent PAM requirements.

Vive ut Numquam Moriturus: Tweaking Translational Control to Regulate Longevity.

Molecular mechanisms regulating aging at the post-transcriptional level are not clear. In this issue of Molecular Cell,D'Amico et al. (2019) demonstrate that the translational inhibition of mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) regulates cellular homeostasis and aging.

Quantifying Nucleation In Vivo Reveals the Physical Basis of Prion-like Phase Behavior.

Resolving Cell Fate Decisions during Somatic Cell Reprogramming by Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which is a highly heterogeneous process. Here we report the cell fate continuum during somatic cell reprogramming at single-cell resolution. We first develop SOT to analyze cell fate continuum from Oct4/Sox2/Klf4- or OSK-mediated reprogramming and show that cells bifurcate into two categories, reprogramming potential (RP) or non-reprogramming (NR). We further show that Klf4 contributes to Cd34+/Fxyd5+/Psca+ keratinocyte-like NR f...

PINK1 Inhibits Local Protein Synthesis to Limit Transmission of Deleterious Mitochondrial DNA Mutations.

We have previously proposed that selective inheritance, the limited transmission of damaging mtDNA mutations from mother to offspring, is based on replication competition in Drosophila melanogaster. This model, which stems from our observation that wild-type mitochondria propagate much more vigorously in the fly ovary than mitochondria carrying fitness-impairing mutations, implies that germ cells recognize the fitness of individual mitochondria and selectively boost the propagation of healthy ones. Here, we...

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