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C-reactive protein (CRP) is used to assist the diagnosis and monitoring of newborn infection. Little is known about CRP activity after birth in the absence of infection.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), an inflammatory disease involving disrupted lung development, is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.
There are limited data available regarding the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) predictive of the failure of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Therefore, we investigated factors predictive of CPAP failure in the first 72 h of life, with special attention to the prognostic role of FiO2.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a new MRI scoring system for preterm non-haemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI), derived from the analysis of the natural evolution of WMI throughout the neonatal period until term-equivalent age, can be used for outcome prediction.
The introduction of Neonatology as a subspecialty in 1960 has stimulated an enormous amount of neonatal research. A large proportion of neonatal randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) have been included in the Cochrane reviews, within which methodological quality or risk-of-bias (ROB) assessment is an integral feature.
Premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) are at risk of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used to predict disease severity in adult PH. Its diagnostic utility in sBPD-associated PH is unknown.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a neonatal syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is caused by the failure of postnatal drop in pulmonary vascular resistance. In extreme cases, patients may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO). The aim of this study was to explore lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in newborns with PPHN requiring ECMO.
Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) during immediate transition and resuscitation immediately after birth is of increasing interest.
Therapeutic interventions to improve the efficacy of whole-body cooling for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are desirable. Topiramate has been effective in reducing brain damage in experimental studies. However, in the clinical setting information is limited to a small number of feasibility trials. We launched a randomized controlled double-blinded topiramate/placebo multicenter trial with the primary objective being to reduce the antiepileptic activity in cooled neonates with HIE and assess if brain ...
Nephrin is a key component of the slit diaphragm of the glomerular podocyte, and increased urinary nephrin level may reflect glomerular injury.
Currently the question of whether to maintain a higher hemoglobin level by transfusing more liberally, as opposed to a more restrictive strategy with lower hemoglobin maintenance levels, has not been answered. We review summarized conclusions of a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of 614 infants in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCT) pooling data. This suggests potential benefits of higher hemoglobin levels, i.e., a possible improved cognition of infants at 18-21 months' corrected age and a redu...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the few diseases in neonatal medicine that has continued to evolve since its first description about 50 years ago. Over these years, advancements in neonatal medicine such as antenatal steroids and exogenous surfactant therapy have significantly reduced neonatal mortality and lowered the limits of viability for preterm infants. Although the incidence of BPD continues to be high, especially in extremely low birth weight infants, the clinical picture has evolved into...
Care and outcomes for very preterm infants continue to improve, but important causes of mortality and acute and long-term morbidity associated with prolonged hospitalisation remain. Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset infection have emerged as the major causes of death beyond the early neonatal period and of neurodisability in very preterm infants. Although the pathogenesis of these conditions is incompletely understood, it appears to be related to the content and mode of delivery of the enteral ...
As management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) advances, clinicians must continually revise their current practice. We report the fourth update of "European Guidelines for the Management of RDS" by a European panel of experienced neonatologists and an expert perinatal obstetrician based on available literature up to the end of 2018. Optimising outcome for babies with RDS includes prediction of risk of preterm delivery, need for appropriate maternal transfer to a perinatal centre and timely use of ante...
Traditionally, surfactant has been administered to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome via an endotracheal tube and in conjunction with mechanical ventilation. However, negative consequences of mechanical ventilation such as pneumothorax and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are well known. In order to provide the benefits of surfactant administration without the negative effects of mechanical ventilation, several methods of less invasive surfactant administration have been developed. These methods ...
Noninvasive ventilation for preterm infants at birth has been recommended and universally adopted. The umbilical cord is often clamped immediately in order to provide the support the infant needs for stabilization. However, recent scientific data from experimental studies that involve animals in transition and human studies using physiological measurements at birth have increased awareness as to how little we know about how these interventions interact and integrate with the infant's changing physiology. It...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a relatively common disease in very-low-birth-weight infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In survivors, neurodevelopmental impairment is frequently seen. The exact etiology remains largely to be elucidated, but microbiota are considered to play a major role in the development of NEC. Furthermore, emerging evidence exists that the microbiota is also of importance in brain function and development. Therefore, microbiota characterization has not only p...
Recent studies reported conflicting results on the relationship between antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) exposure and neonatal intestinal injury. Most studies have not assessed MgSO4 exposure quantitatively and none reported the exposure timing.
Perinatal clinical research to improve the quality of care and outcomes for newborn infants relies on transparency, trust, and respect for the autonomy and well-being of study participants and their families.