PubMed Journal Database | Neuro-oncology RSS

09:47 EST 21st November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 347 from Neuro-oncology

Craniospinal irradiation as part of re-irradiation for children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma.

The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes in children with relapsed, molecularly-characterized intracranial ependymoma treated with or without craniospinal irradiation (CSI) as part of a course of repeat radiation therapy (re-RT).


Introduction of novel agents in the treatment of Primary CNS Lymphoma.

Novel insights into the pathophysiology of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) have identified the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor pathway as well as immune evasion and suppressed tumor immune microenvironment as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of PCNSL. Small molecules and novel agents targeting these aberrant pathways have been introduced into clinical trials targeting the recurrent or refractory PCNSL patient population. Agents like the Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibruti...

Estimating survival for renal cell carcinoma patients with brain metastases: an update of the Renal Graded Prognostic Assessment tool.

Brain metastases are a common complication of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our group previously published the Renal Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) tool. In our prior RCC study (n = 286, 1985-2005), we found marked heterogeneity and variation in outcomes. In our recent update in a larger, more contemporary cohort, we identified additional significant prognostic factors. The purpose of this study is to update the original Renal-GPA based on the newly identified prognostic factors.

Lower-grade gliomas: the wrong target for bevacizumab.

Survivorship in Neuro-Oncology.

Survivorship care planning and implementation in neuro-oncology.

Survivorship has become a significant topic within oncologic care. The tools and means by which the provision of survivorship care can be implemented and delivered are in development and are the focus of significant research oncology-wide. These tools and methods include innovations of survivorship care delivery, survivorship care plans, and improving communication among all stakeholders in an individual patient's care as the means to elevate health-related quality of life. The merits of these survivorship ...

Updates in prognostic markers for gliomas.

Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. The traditional classification of gliomas has been based on histologic features and tumor grade. The advent of sophisticated molecular diagnostic techniques has led to a deeper understanding of genomic drivers implicated in gliomagenesis, some of which have important prognostic implications. These advances have led to an extensive revision of the World Health Organization classification of diffuse gliomas to include molecular markers such ...

Inflammation and Vascular Permeability Correlate With Growth in Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma.

Inflammation is hypothesized to be a key event in the growth of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). In this study we sought to investigate the relationship between inflammation and tumor growth in vivo using the PET tracer 11C-(R)-PK11195 and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI derived vascular biomarkers.

Viral and other therapies for recurrent GBM: is a 24-month durable response unusual?

A phase 1 trial of an engineered poliovirus for the treatment of rGBM (GBM) has attracted attention due to 8 survivors reaching the 24-month and 5 reaching the 36-month survival landmarks1. Genetically engineered viruses (oncolytic viruses) have been in trials for GBM for almost two decades2. These replication-competent (tumor-selective, oncolytic, replication-conditional) viruses or replication-defective viral vectors (gene therapy) deliver cytotoxic payloads to tumors, leading to immunogenic death and int...

Multimodal Imaging-defined Subregions in Newly-diagnosed Glioblastoma: Impact on Overall Survival.

Although glioblastomas are heterogeneous brain-infiltrating tumors, their treatment is mostly focused on the contrast-enhancing tumor mass. In this study, we combined conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and amino acid PET to explore imaging-defined glioblastoma subregions and evaluate their potential prognostic value.

Sensitive and rapid detection of TERT promoter and IDH mutations in diffuse gliomas.

Mutations in the promoter of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) offer objective markers to assist in classifying diffuse gliomas into genetic subgroups. However, traditional mutation detection techniques lack sensitivity, or have long turnaround times, or high costs. We developed GliomaDx, an allele-specific, locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based qPCR assay to overcome these limitations and sensitively detect TERTp and IDH mutations.

Supratotal Resection in Glioma: A Systematic Review.

Emerging evidence suggests survival benefit from resection beyond all MRI abnormalities present on T1-enhanced and T2-FLAIR modalities in glioma (supratotal resection); however, the quality of evidence is unclear. We addressed this question via systematic review of the literature.

Glioblastoma survival is improving despite increasing incidence rates: a nationwide study between 2000 and 2013 in Finland.

We assessed population-level changes in glioblastoma survival between 2000 and 2013 in Finland, with focus on elderly patients (>70 years) in order to assess if changes in treatment of glioblastoma are reflected also in population-based survival rates.

Durable response to mTOR inhibition in a patient with relapsing papillary tumor of the pineal region.

Combined Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Ferumoxytol and Gadolinium Contrast Enhanced MRI Defines Glioblastoma Pseudo-progression.

Noninvasively differentiating therapy-induced pseudo-progression from recurrent disease in patients with glioblastoma is prospectively difficult due to the current lack of a biologically specific imaging metric. Ferumoxytol iron oxide nanoparticle MRI contrast characterizes innate immunity mediated neuroinflammation; therefore, we hypothesized that combined ferumoxytol and gadolinium enhanced MRI could serve as a biomarker of glioblastoma pseudo-progression.

N2M2 (NOA20) phase I/II trial of molecularly matched targeted therapies plus radiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed non-MGMT hypermethylated glioblastoma.

Patients with glioblastoma without O6-methyl guanine O6-methylatransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylation are unlikely to benefit from alkylating chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ). Trials aiming at replacing TMZ with targeted agents in unselected patient populations have failed to demonstrate any improvement of survival. Advances in molecular understanding and diagnostic precision enable identification of key genetic alterations in a timely manner and in principle allow treatments with targeted compoun...

Outcomes following SRS for small- to medium-sized brain metastases are exceptionally dependent upon tumor size and prescribed dose.

At our institution, we have historically treated brain metastasis (BM) ≤2cm in eloquent brain with a radiosurgery (SRS) lower prescription dose (PD) to reduce the risk of radionecrosis (RN). We sought to evaluate the impact of this practice on outcomes.

Sex difference of mutation clonality in diffuse glioma evolution.

x differences in glioma incidence and outcome have been previously reported but remain poorly understood. Many sex differencesthat affect the cancer risk were thought to be associated with cancer evolution.

MGMT promoter methylation status testing to guide therapy for glioblastoma: refining the approach based on emerging evidence and current challenges.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, with a universally poor prognosis. The emergence of molecular biomarkers has had a significant impact on histological typing and diagnosis, as well as predicting patient survival and response to treatment. The methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT) gene promoter is one such molecular biomarker. Despite the strong evidence supporting the role of MGMT methylation status in prognostication, its routine implem...

Demethylation and epigenetic modification with 5-Azacytidine reduces IDH1 mutant glioma growth in combination with Temozolomide.

Isocitrate Deyhydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas are comprised of the majority of grade II-III gliomas and nearly all secondary glioblastomas. These progressive gliomas arise from mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 that pathologically produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2-HG interferes with cell reactions using alpha ketoglutarate leading to a hypermethylated genome and epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression initiating tumorigenesis.

Characterization of the immune microenvironment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: Implications for development of immunotherapy.

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is a uniformly fatal CNS tumor diagnosed in 300 American children per year. Radiation is the only effective treatment and extends overall survival to a median of 11 months. Due to its location in the brainstem, DIPG tumors cannot be surgically resected. Immunotherapy has the ability to target tumor cells specifically, however, little is known about the tumor microenvironment in DIPGs. We sought to characterize infiltrating immune cells and immunosuppressive factor exp...

Satisfying your neuro-oncologist: a fast approach to routine molecular glioma diagnostics.

Elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of glioma: integrated germline and somatic profiling of a familial glioma case series.

The genomic characterization of sporadically arising gliomas has delineated molecularly and clinically distinct subclasses of disease. However, less is known about the molecular nature of gliomas that are familial in origin. We performed molecular subtyping of 163 tumor specimens from individuals with a family history of glioma and integrated germline and somatic genomic data to characterize the pathogenesis of 20 tumors in additional detail.

Voxel-wise radiogenomic mapping of tumor location with key molecular alterations in patients with glioma.

This study aims to evaluate the impact of tumor location on key molecular alterations on a single voxel level in patients with newly-diagnosed glioma.

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