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PubMed Journal Database | NeuroImage RSS

09:30 EDT 27th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,200+ from NeuroImage

Neural specificity of scene representations is related to memory performance in childhood.

Successful memory encoding is supported by medial temporal, retrosplenial, and occipital regions, which show developmental differences in recruitment from childhood to adulthood. However, little is known about the extent to which neural specificity in these brain regions, or the distinctiveness with which sensory information is represented, continues to develop during middle childhood and how it contributes to memory performance. The present study used multivariate pattern analysis to examine the distinctiv...

Cerebral microbleed detection using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and deep learning.

Detecting cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is important in diagnosing a variety of diseases including dementia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. However, manual detection of CMBs can be time-consuming and prone to errors, whereas the current automatic algorithms for CMB detection are usually limited by large number of false positives. In this study, we present a two-stage CMB detection framework which contains a candidate detection stage based on a 3D radial symmetry transform of the composite images from Susc...

The human sensorimotor cortex fosters muscle synergies through cortico-synergy coherence.

In neuromotor control, the dimensionality of complex muscular activation patterns is effectively reduced through the emergence of muscle synergies. Muscle synergies are tailored to task-specific biomechanical needs. Traditionally, they are considered as low-dimensional neural output of the spinal cord and as such their coherent cortico-muscular pathways have remained underexplored in humans. We investigated whether muscle synergies have a higher-order origin, especially, whether they are manifest in the cor...

A model of brain morphological changes related to aging and Alzheimer's disease from cross-sectional assessments.

In this study we propose a deformation-based framework to jointly model the influence of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the brain morphological evolution. Our approach combines a spatio-temporal description of both processes into a generative model. A reference morphology is deformed along specific trajectories to match subject specific morphologies. It is used to define two imaging progression markers: 1) a morphological age and 2) a disease score. These markers can be computed regionally in any bra...

Bidirectional signal exchanges and their mechanisms during joint attention interaction - A hyperscanning fMRI study.

Social interactions are essential to our daily life. We tested the hypothesis that social interactions during joint attention (JA) require bidirectional communication, each with a different mechanism. We used a novel multivariate functional connectivity analysis, which enables obtaining directed pathways between four regions at each time-frequency point, with hyperscanning MRI data of real-time JA interaction. Constructing multiple "4-regional directed pathways" and counting the number of times, regions eng...

Topological correction of infant white matter surfaces using anatomically constrained convolutional neural network.

Reconstruction of accurate cortical surfaces without topological errors (i.e., handles and holes) from infant brain MR images is very important in early brain development studies. However, infant brain MR images typically suffer extremely low tissue contrast and dynamic imaging appearance patterns. Thus, it is inevitable to have large amounts of topological errors in the segmented infant brain tissue images, which lead to inaccurately reconstructed cortical surfaces with topological errors. To address this ...

Group-level cortical and muscular connectivity during perturbations to walking and standing balance.

Maintaining balance is a complex process requiring multisensory processing and coordinated muscle activation. Previous studies have indicated that the cortex is directly involved in balance control, but less information is known about cortical flow of signals for balance. We studied source-localized electrocortical effective connectivity dynamics of healthy young subjects (29 subjects: 14 male and 15 female) walking and standing with both visual and physical perturbations to their balance. The goal of this ...

The relation between brain signal complexity and task difficulty on an executive function task.

On a daily basis, we constantly deal with changing environmental cues and perceptual conflicts and as such, our brains must flexibly adapt to current demands in order to act appropriately. Brains become more efficient and are able to switch states more readily by increasing the complexity of their neural networks. However, it is unclear how brain signal complexity relates to behavior in young adults performing cognitively demanding executive function tasks. Here we used multiscale entropy analysis and multi...

Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of resting state functional brain connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

Disruption of cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems is associated with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the responsiveness of these systems in AD we measured the effects of a single-dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine in 12 patients with AD and 12 age-matched controls on functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. In thi...

Noninvasive noncontact speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow in rats.

Continuous and longitudinal imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations provide vital information to investigate pathophysiology and interventions for a variety of neurological and cerebral diseases. An innovative noncontact speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (scDCT) system was downscaled and adapted for noninvasive imaging of CBF distributions in rat brain through intact scalp and skull. Algorithms for 2D mapping and 3D image reconstruction of CBF distributions were developed and optimized...

Microelectrode array electrical impedance tomography for fast functional imaging in the thalamus.

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has the potential to be able to observe functional tomographic images of neural activity in the brain at millisecond time-scales. Prior modelling and experimental work has shown that EIT is capable of imaging impedance changes from neural depolarisation in rat somatosensory cortex. Here, we investigate the feasibility of EIT for imaging impedance changes using a stereotaxically implanted microelectrode array in the thalamus. Microelectrode array EIT was simulated using ...

Functional imaging of rostrocaudal spinal activity during upper limb motor tasks.

The spinal cord is the main interface between the brain and the periphery. It notably plays a central role in motor control, as spinal motoneurons activate skeletal muscles involved in voluntary movements. Yet, the spinal mechanisms underlying human movement generation have not been completely elucidated. In this regard, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents a potential tool to probe spinal cord function non-invasively and with high spatial resolution. Nonetheless, a thorough characterizat...

The influence of brain iron on myelin water imaging.

With myelin playing a vital role in normal brain integrity and function and thus in various neurological disorders, myelin sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are of great importance. In particular, multi-exponential T relaxation was shown to be highly sensitive to myelin. The myelin water imaging (MWI) technique allows to separate the T decay into short components, specific to myelin water, and long components reflecting the intra- and extracellular water. The myelin water fraction (MWF) ...

Identifying predictors of within-person variance in MRI-based brain volume estimates.

Adequate reliability of measurement is a precondition for investigating individual differences and age-related changes in brain structure. One approach to improve reliability is to identify and control for variables that are predictive of within-person variance. To this end, we applied both classical statistical methods and machine-learning-inspired approaches to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data of six participants aged 24-31 years gathered at 40-50 occasions distributed over 6-8 months fro...

Variational autoencoder: An unsupervised model for encoding and decoding fMRI activity in visual cortex.

Goal-driven and feedforward-only convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been shown to be able to predict and decode cortical responses to natural images or videos. Here, we explored an alternative deep neural network, variational auto-encoder (VAE), as a computational model of the visual cortex. We trained a VAE with a five-layer encoder and a five-layer decoder to learn visual representations from a diverse set of unlabeled images. Using the trained VAE, we predicted and decoded cortical activity observe...

ICLabel: An automated electroencephalographic independent component classifier, dataset, and website.

The electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a non-invasive, minimally restrictive, and relatively low-cost measure of mesoscale brain dynamics with high temporal resolution. Although signals recorded in parallel by multiple, near-adjacent EEG scalp electrode channels are highly-correlated and combine signals from many different sources, biological and non-biological, independent component analysis (ICA) has been shown to isolate the various source generator processes underlying those recordings. Independent com...

The effects of psychiatric history and age on self-regulation of the default mode network.

Real-time neurofeedback enables human subjects to learn to regulate their brain activity, effecting behavioral changes and improvements of psychiatric symptomatology. Neurofeedback up-regulation and down-regulation have been assumed to share common neural correlates. Neuropsychiatric pathology and aging incur suboptimal functioning of the default mode network. Despite the exponential increase in real-time neuroimaging studies, the effects of aging, pathology and the direction of regulation on neurofeedback ...

Fingerprinting Orientation Distribution Functions in diffusion MRI detects smaller crossing angles.

Diffusion tractography is routinely used to study white matter architecture and brain connectivity in vivo. A key step for successful tractography of neuronal tracts is the correct identification of tract directions in each voxel. Here we propose a fingerprinting-based methodology to identify these fiber directions in Orientation Distribution Functions, dubbed ODF-Fingerprinting (ODF-FP). In ODF-FP, fiber configurations are selected based on the similarity between measured ODFs and elements in a pre-compute...

Change detection to tone pairs during the first year of life - Predictive longitudinal relationships for EEG-based source and time-frequency measures.

Brain responses related to auditory processing show large changes throughout infancy and childhood with some evidence that the two hemispheres might mature at different rates. Differing rates of hemispheric maturation could be linked to the proposed functional specialization of the hemispheres in which the left auditory cortex engages in analysis of precise timing information whereas the right auditory cortex focuses on analysis of sound frequency. Here the auditory change detection process for rapidly pres...

Shared neural representations of syntax during online dyadic communication.

When people communicate, they come to see the world in a similar way to each other by aligning their mental representations at such levels as syntax. Syntax is an essential feature of human language that distinguishes humans from other non-human animals. However, whether and how communicators share neural representations of syntax is not well understood. Here we addressed this issue by measuring the brain activity of both communicators in a series of dyadic communication contexts, by using functional near-i...

Adolescent cognitive control, theta oscillations, and social observation.

Theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) provide an organizing principle of cognitive control, allowing goal-directed behavior. In adults, theta power over medial-frontal cortex (MFC) underlies conflict/error monitoring, whereas theta connectivity between MFC and lateral-frontal regions reflects cognitive control recruitment. However, prior work has not separated theta responses that occur before and immediately after a motor response, nor explained how medial-lateral connectivity drives different kinds of control beh...

Frequency-specific brain dynamics related to prediction during language comprehension.

The brain's remarkable capacity to process spoken language virtually in real time requires fast and efficient information processing machinery. In this study, we investigated how frequency-specific brain dynamics relate to models of probabilistic language prediction during auditory narrative comprehension. We recorded MEG activity while participants were listening to auditory stories in Dutch. Using trigram statistical language models, we estimated for every word in a story its conditional probability of oc...

Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain auditory system: Three-dimensional delineations based on structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

The mammalian auditory system comprises a complex network of brain regions. Interpretations and comparisons of experimental results from this system depend on appropriate anatomical identification of auditory structures. The Waxholm Space (WHS) atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain (Papp et al., Neuroimage 97:374-86, 2014) is an open access, three-dimensional reference atlas defined in an ex-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volume. Version 2.0 of the atlas (Kjonigsen ...

Dyadic interaction processing in the posterior temporal cortex.

Recent behavioural evidence shows that visual displays of two individuals interacting are not simply encoded as separate individuals, but as an interactive unit that is 'more than the sum of its parts'. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence shows the importance of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in processing human social interactions, and suggests that it may represent humanobject interactions as qualitatively 'greater' than the average of their constituent parts. The c...

Combining white matter diffusion and geometry for tract-specific alignment and variability analysis.

We present a framework for along-tract analysis of white matter (WM) fiber bundles based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography. We introduce the novel concept of fiber-flux density for modeling fiber tracts' geometry, and combine it with diffusion-based measures to define vector descriptors called Fiber-Flux Diffusion Density (FFDD). The proposed model captures informative features of WM tracts at both the microscopic (diffusion-related) and macroscopic (geometry-related) scales, thus enabling ...


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