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PubMed Journal Database | NeuroImage. Clinical RSS

10:33 EDT 22nd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 179 from NeuroImage. Clinical

Evidence for impaired olfactory function and structural brain integrity in a disorder of ciliary function, Usher syndrome.

Diseases involving cilia dysfunction, such as Usher Syndrome (USH), often involve visual and auditory loss. Psychophysical evidence has suggested that this may also hold true for the peripheral olfactory domain. Here we aimed to go a step further by attempting to establish relations between the integrity of cortical structures and olfactory function in this condition. We investigated olfactory function for USH types 1 (USH1) and 2 (USH2). Bilateral olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth ...

BOLD-fMRI activity informed by network variation of scalp EEG in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Epilepsy is marked by hypersynchronous bursts of neuronal activity, and seizures can propagate variably to any and all areas, leading to brain network dynamic organization. However, the relationship between the network characteristics of scalp EEG and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in epilepsy patients is still not well known. In this study, simultaneous EEG and fMRI data were acquired in 18 juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. Then, the adapted directed transfer function (ADTF) v...

Aberrant resting-state oscillatory brain activity in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations: An MEG source-space study.

To gain insight into possible underlying mechanism(s) of visual hallucinations (VH) in Parkinson's disease (PD), we explored changes in local oscillatory activity in different frequency bands with source-space magnetoencephalography (MEG). Eyes-closed resting-state MEG recordings were obtained from 20 PD patients with hallucinations (Hall+) and 20 PD patients without hallucinations (Hall-), matched for age, gender and disease severity. The Hall+ group was subdivided into 10 patients with VH only (unimodal H...

Misery perfusion and amyloid deposition in atherosclerotic major cerebral artery disease.

Although experimental studies have shown that global cerebral hypoperfusion leads to amyloid deposition in the hemisphere with carotid artery occlusion in rodents, the results of such occurrence are controversial in humans. Hence, we aim to determine whether global cerebral hypoperfusion leading to decreased blood flow relative to metabolic demand [increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), misery perfusion] is associated with increases in amyloid deposition in the hemisphere with atherosclerotic major cer...

Striatal DAT and extrastriatal SERT binding in early-stage Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, compared with healthy controls: An I-FP-CIT SPECT study.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are thought to be part of a spectrum: both have a clinical profile including symptoms associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic loss, yet few imaging studies have focused on serotonergic neurodegeneration in both disorders. We aimed to study degeneration of terminals with dopamine and serotonin transporter (DAT and SERT, respectively) in patients with early-stage PD and DLB relative to healthy controls, using I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbometho...

Resting CMRO fluctuations show persistent network hyper-connectivity following exposure to sub-concussive collisions.

Exposure to head impacts may alter brain connectivity within cortical hubs such as the default-mode network (DMN). However, studies have yet to consider the confounding effects of altered resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) on changes in connectivity following sub-concussive impacts. Here, 23 Canadian collegiate football players were followed during a season using calibrated resting-state MRI and helmet accelerometers to examine the interplay between the neural and vascula...

Reduced tendency to attribute mental states to abstract shapes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia links with cerebellar structural integrity.

Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute mental states to others. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by profound deficits in social cognition, including ToM. We investigate whether bvFTD affects intention attribution tendency while viewing abstract animations and whether this might represent a primary deficit. A sample of 15 bvFTD patients and 19 matched controls were assessed on cognition and performed an implicit ToM task. They w...

"The effect of tDCS on functional connectivity in primary progressive aphasia" NeuroImage: Clinical, volume 19 (2018), pages 703-715.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an innovative technique recently shown to improve language outcomes even in neurodegenerative conditions such as primary progressive aphasia (PPA), but the underlying brain mechanisms are not known. The present study tested whether the additional language gains with repetitive tDCS (over sham) in PPA are caused by changes in functional connectivity between the stimulated area (the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)) and the rest of the language network. We sc...

Phasic amygdala and BNST activation during the anticipation of temporally unpredictable social observation in social anxiety disorder patients.

Anticipation of potentially threatening social situations is a key process in social anxiety disorder (SAD). In other anxiety disorders, recent research of neural correlates of anticipation of temporally unpredictable threat suggests a temporally dissociable involvement of amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) with phasic amygdala responses and sustained BNST activation. However, the temporal profile of amygdala and BNST responses during temporal unpredictability of threat has not been inv...

Physiological significance of R-fMRI indices: Can functional metrics differentiate structural lesions (brain tumors)?

Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) research has recently entered the era of "big data", however, few studies have provided a rigorous validation of the physiological underpinnings of R-fMRI indices. Although studies have reported that various neuropsychiatric disorders exhibit abnormalities in R-fMRI measures, these "biomarkers" have not been validated in differentiating structural lesions (brain tumors) as a concept proof. We enrolled 60 patients with intracranial tumors located in the unilateral crania...

Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions relieve insomnia symptoms by modulating a shared network: A controlled longitudinal study.

Primary insomnia (PI) is one of the most common complaints among the general population. Both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies have proven effective in treating primary insomnia. However, the underlying mechanism of treatment remains unclear, and no studies have compared the underlying mechanisms of different treatments.

Deep/mixed cerebral microbleeds are associated with cognitive dysfunction through thalamocortical connectivity disruption: The Taizhou Imaging Study.

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are considered to be risk factors for cognitive dysfunction. The specific pathology and clinical manifestations of CMBs are different based on their locations. We investigated the association between CMBs at different locations and cognitive dysfunction and explored the potential underlying pathways in a rural Han Chinese population.

Predictive markers for Parkinson's disease using deep neural nets on neuromelanin sensitive MRI.

Neuromelanin sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NMS-MRI) has been crucial in identifying abnormalities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc. Current techniques employ estimation of contrast ratios of the SNc, visualized on NMS-MRI, to discern PD patients from the healthy controls. However, the extraction of these features is time-consuming and laborious and moreover provides lower prediction accuracies. F...

Altered brain tissue viscoelasticity in pediatric cerebral palsy measured by magnetic resonance elastography.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results in functional motor impairment and disability in children. CP is characterized by neural injury though many children do not exhibit brain lesions or damage. Advanced structural MRI measures may be more sensitively related to clinical outcomes in this population. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measures the viscoelastic mechanical properties of brain tissue, which vary extensively between normal and disease states, and we hypothesized th...

Neighborhood affluence is not associated with positive and negative valence processing in adults with mood and anxiety disorders: A Bayesian inference approach.

Survey-based studies show that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with community reported mental health problems. However, fewer studies have examined whether neighborhood characteristics have measurable impact on mental health status of individuals in general and whether neighborhood characteristics impact positive/negative valence processing at both behavioral and brain levels. This study addressed these questions by investigating effects of census-based neighborhood affluence on self-reported sympto...

Anatomically constrained tractography facilitates biologically plausible fiber reconstruction of the optic radiation in multiple sclerosis.

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) enables the microstructural characterization and reconstruction of white matter pathways in vivo non-invasively. However, dMRI only provides information on the orientation of potential fibers but not on their anatomical plausibility. To that end, recent methodological advances facilitate the effective use of anatomical priors in the process of fiber reconstruction, thus improving the accuracy of the results. Here, we investigated the potential of anatomic...

High serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is associated with memory function and gyrification of insular and frontal opercular cortex in an elderly memory-clinic population.

The issue of whether serum lipid marker values are cognitively and neurologically significant for elderly individuals attending a memory clinic has been controversial. We investigated the associations of serum lipid markers with the memory function and cortical structure in 52 patients aged ≥75 years who had attended our memory clinic based on their subjective memory complaints. None had a history of medication for hyperlipidemia. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to all patient...

Chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging in hepatic encephalopathy.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication in liver cirrhosis and associated with an invasion of ammonia into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. Resulting higher ammonia concentrations in the brain are suggested to lead to a dose-dependent gradual increase of HE severity and an associated impairment of brain function. Amide proton transfer-weighted (APT) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging has been found to be sensitive to ammonia concentration. The aim of this work was to...

A multicenter study of ketamine effects on functional connectivity: Large scale network relationships, hubs and symptom mechanisms.

Ketamine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist. It induces effects in healthy individuals that mimic symptoms associated with schizophrenia. We sought to root these experiences in altered brain function, specifically aberrant resting state functional connectivity (rsfMRI). In the present study, we acquired rsfMRI data under ketamine and placebo in a between-subjects design and analyzed seed-based measures of rsfMRI using large-scale networks, dorsolateral prefrontal c...

Applying surface-based hippocampal morphometry to study APOE-E4 allele dose effects in cognitively unimpaired subjects.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dose-dependent impact of this allele on hippocampal volumes has been documented, but its influence on general hippocampal morphology in cognitively unimpaired individuals is still elusive. Capitalizing on the study of a large number of cognitively unimpaired late middle aged and older adults with two, one and no APOE-e4 alleles, the current study aims to characterize the ability of our automated surface-...

Cortical volume and 40-Hz auditory-steady-state responses in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

Abnormalities in the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) of the gamma range have been reported in schizophrenia (SZ) and are regarded as important pathophysiological features. Many of the previous studies reported diminished gamma oscillations in SZ, although some studies reported increased spontaneous gamma oscillations. Furthermore, brain morphological correlates of the gamma band ASSR deficits have rarely examined. We investigated different measures of the 40-Hz ASSR and their association with br...

White matter abnormalities in depression: A categorical and phenotypic diffusion MRI study.

Mood depressive disorder is one of the most disabling chronic diseases with a high rate of everyday life disability that affects 350 million people around the world. Recent advances in neuroimaging have reported widespread structural abnormalities, suggesting a dysfunctional frontal-limbic circuit involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression. However, a variety of different white matter regions has been implicated and is sought to suffer from lack of reproducibility of such categorical-based ...

Mirror neuron activations in encoding of psychic pain in borderline personality disorder.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by pronounced emotional instability in interpersonal relations. Previous studies have shown increased activity in the amygdala, an imaging phenotype of negative affect. However, clinical accounts of BPD have drawn attention to deficits in social cognition and their likely role in engendering emotional instability. BPD patients show enhanced sensitivity to other people's emotions, while being less proficient in reading motives and reasons. In the present...

Divergent patterns of loss of interpersonal warmth in frontotemporal dementia syndromes are predicted by altered intrinsic network connectivity.

Loss of warmth is well-documented in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) at a group level, and has been linked to salience (SN) and semantic-appraisal (SAN) network atrophy. However, clinical observations of individual patients show much greater heterogeneity, thus measuring this clinical variability and identifying the underlying neurologic mechanisms is a critical step for understanding the symptom profile of any one patient. We used ...

Altered default mode network connectivity in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by intrusions, re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal. These symptoms might be linked to dysfunction in core neurocognitive networks subserving self-referential mental processing (default mode network, DMN), detection of salient stimuli (salience network, SN) and cognitive dysfunction (central executive network, CEN). Resting state studies in adolescent PTSD are scarce and findings are inconsistent, probably due to differences in patient symptom se...


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