PubMed Journal Database | Neuropsychobiology RSS

12:08 EDT 25th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 115 from Neuropsychobiology

Chronobiology - 31st Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, June 20-22, 2019.

A Case-Control Study of ABCB1, ABCB6, and ABCG1 Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia in a Han Chinese Population.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex, heritable, and devastating psychiatric disorder. Mutations in the members of ABC transporters have been associated with psychiatric illnesses.

Brain Volume-Related Polymorphisms of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Gene and Their Effect on Antidepressant Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) polymorphisms are known to influence hippocampal brain tissue volume in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effects of the GSK-3β gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those receiving antidepressant therapy are unknown.

Leptin, Anxiety Symptoms, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity among Drug-Free, Female Suicide Attempters.

Dysregulation of leptin secretion and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicide. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown interactions between the HPA axis and leptin. There is also evidence for a negative relationship between leptin and anxiety in humans. However, these possible associations have not been studied in individuals with attempted suicide.

Alcohol Withdrawal and Proopiomelanocortin Neuropeptides in an Animal Model of Alcohol Dependence.

Alcohol is one of the leading threats to health worldwide. Craving for alcohol makes abstinence a difficult challenge by maintaining alcohol dependence. Many studies suppose the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived neuropeptides, to mediate craving during withdrawal in alcohol dependence. Evidence is available that the two POMC proteins, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and β-endorphin (β-END) are altered by alcohol consumption and influence alco...

Gender-Related Brain Activations during an Emotional Task: An fMRI Study.

Women have twice the rate of depression and anxiety disorders as men. Some studies suggest that this could be caused by women's greater sensitivity to negative emotions. Few brain imaging studies have compared the brain activity of men to women during a presentation of emotional stimuli. Our objective was to investigate brain activations in men and women during an emotional task. We hypothesized that the pattern of brain activations would differ by gender and valence of the stimuli.

Alzheimer's Disease and Neurotransmission Gene Variants: Focus on Their Effects on Psychiatric Comorbidities and Inflammatory Parameters.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accounting for 60-70% of dementia cases. Genetic origin accounts for 49-79% of disease risk. This paper aims to investigate the association of 17 polymorphisms within 7 genes involved in neurotransmission (COMT, HTR2A, PPP3CC, RORA, SIGMAR1, SIRT1, and SORBS3) and AD.

Clinically Relevant Anti-Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

Schizophrenia is a phenotypically heterogeneous and poorly understood disorder. While its etiology is likely multifactorial, immune system dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in its development. As hallucinations and delusions occur frequently and prominently in autoimmune encephalitis (AE), numerous studies have sought to determine whether a small subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia possess anti-neuronal antibodies implicated in AE. Exploring this possibility is of clinical relevanc...

FKBP5 Gene Variants May Modulate Depressive Features in Bipolar Disorder.

Previous evidence suggested the possible association of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene variants in bipolar disorder (BPD).

Do Immune Dysregulations and Oxidative Damage Drive Mood and Psychotic Disorders?

Diagnostic Utility of Sodium Lactate Infusion and CO2-35% Inhalation for Panic Disorder.

Laboratory measures have played an integral role in diagnosing pathology; however, compared to traditional medicine, psychiatric medicine has lagged behind in using such measures. A growing body of literature has begun to examine the viability and development of different laboratory measures in order to diagnose psychopathologies. The present review examines the current state of development of both sodium lactate infusion and CO2-35% inhalation as potential ancillary measures to diagnose panic disorder (PD)...

Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Studies in Panic Disorder Patients: Evidence of Impaired Performance during the Emotional Stroop Task.

Recent investigations have highlighted significant differences in verbal recall between patients with panic disorder (PD) and controls. These studies have highlighted that verbal memory and working memory could be impaired in PD.

Compared to Controls, Individuals with Lichen Planopilaris Have More Depression, a Lower Self-Esteem, and a Lower Quality of Life.

Individuals with lichen planopilaris (LPP) typically present with hair loss and an irritated scalp, with signs and symptoms such as itching, erythema, scaling, and burning. Both hair loss and reddened skin may be visible also for other people. Therefore, it is conceivable that individuals with LPP might report a lower mental health status. Accordingly, in the present study, we compared dimensions of mental health between individuals with LPP and healthy controls.

Reduced Sensitivity to Non-Fear-Related Stimulus Changes in Panic Disorder.

Panic disorder (PD) is associated with increased body vigilance and reduced cognitive resources directed at non-fear-related stimuli, particularly in the absence of stimulus-rich environments. To date, only few studies have investigated whether this deficit in PD is reflected in reduced mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential indexing preattentive sensitivity to unexpected stimulus changes. We tested 35 patients affected by PD and 42 matched healthy controls in an oddball paradigm, using frequ...

A Systematic Review of the Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Schizophrenia Symptoms.

Derangements of the gut microbiome have been linked to increased systemic inflammation and central nervous system disorders, including schizophrenia. This systematic review thus aimed to investigate the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation improves schizophrenia symptoms.

Moderator Effects of Life Stress on the Association between MAOA-uVNTR, Depression, and Burnout.

The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have a strong impact on several affective disorders and are key targets for psychopharmacological therapy. With respect to pathogenesis, there is a growing body of evidence showing an influence of a promoter repeat polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) altering the expression rate of monoamine oxidase A. However, only a few studies investigate its influence on depression with only 2 of them considering the moderating effects of life stress. For burnout, there are no studies so...

Investigation of the Gut Microbiome in Patients with Schizophrenia and Clozapine-Induced Weight Gain: Protocol and Clinical Characteristics of First Patient Cohorts.

Emerging evidence suggests an important role of the human gut microbiome in psychiatry and neurodevelopmental disorders. An increasing body of literature based on animal studies has reported that the gut microbiome influences brain development and behavior by interacting with the gut-brain axis. Furthermore, as the gut microbiome has an important role in metabolism and is known to interact with pharmaceuticals, recent evidence suggests a role for the microbiome in antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effect...

Postural Control and Verbal and Visual Working Memory Correlates in Nonclinical Psychosis.

Motor and cognitive abnormalities are well documented in psychosis spectrum disorders. Evidence suggests these deficits could be pronounced because of disruptions in the cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-cerebellar (CTCC) circuit, a network thought to be heavily implicated in motor and higher cognitive functioning. Although significant research has been done on this topic in individuals with schizophrenia and those at a clinical high risk for psychosis, much less is known about deficits at the lower end of the s...

Recurrence of Depression in Relation to History of Childhood Trauma and Hair Cortisol Concentration in a Community-Based Sample.

Childhood trauma represents a risk factor for developing depression with increased rates of recurrence. Mechanisms involved include a disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a measure of long-term HPA axis activity with less interference from circadian and confounding factors. However, no study has so far used HCC to investigate the role of childhood trauma in recurrent pattern of depressive symptoms.

Stress-Induced Release of Eating-Related Hormones in Young Women Classified as Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters.

Restrained eating has been linked to binge eating under disinhibited circumstances and is therefore considered a risk factor to develop clinical eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The present study investigated the release of gastrointestinal peptides such as ghrelin and PYY after stress, as well as cortisol in young females classified as restrained and unrestrained eaters.

20th Biennial IPEG Meeting 2018 in Zürich.


The Effects of Probiotics on Symptoms of Depression: Protocol for a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

A growing body of evidence has linked mental health outcomes to the gut microbiome. This has led to the investigation of the GI tract as a target for novel treatments and interventions for depression, including probiotic supplementation. Our recent pilot study provided the first evidence of probiotics improving symptoms of depression in treatment-naive depressed patients. To further support and expand upon this evidence, data from the pilot study were used to plan a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placeb...

Validity of Commonly Used Heart Rate Variability Markers of Autonomic Nervous System Function.

Despite strong reservations regarding the validity of a number of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, these are still being used in recent studies.

Could Dietary Glutamate Play a Role in Psychiatric Distress?

Glutamate is an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter. It has also been associated with somatic and psychiatric distress and is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Ingestion of dietary glutamate, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), has been mechanistically linked with greater distress among patients with chronic pain conditions, though findings have been equivocal. Preliminary research suggests that an MSG-restricted diet confers beneficial...

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