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PubMed Journal Database | Neuroscience RSS

03:41 EDT 25th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 983 from Neuroscience

Interplay between Cholinergic and Adenosinergic Systems in Skeletal Muscle.

Since the pioneering works of Ricardo Miledi, the neuromuscular junction represents the best example of a synapse where ACh is the neurotransmitter acting on nicotinic ACh receptors. ATP, co-released with ACh, is promptly degraded to Ado, which acts as a modulator of the cholinergic synaptic activity. Consequently, both ACh and adenosine play a crucial role in controlling the nerve-muscle communication. Apart from their role in the context of synaptic transmission, ACh and adenosine are autocrinally release...

Excitotoxicity Alters Endogenous Secretoneurin Plasma Levels, but Supplementation with Secretoneurin Does Not Protect against Excitotoxic Neonatal Brain Injury.

Excitotoxicity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of developing brain injury. The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) has neuroprotective potential. The aim of this study was to investigate SN plasma concentrations following excitotoxicity and to evaluate the effect of SN as therapeutic strategy in excitotoxic newborn brain injury. Baseline SN plasma concentrations were established in healthy animals. To evaluate the effect of an excitotoxic insult on SN levels, mice pups were subjected to an intracran...

Functional Connectivity of the Parasubiculum and its Role in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest of adult epilepsies, often refractory to antiepileptic medications, whose prevention and treatment rely on understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms in interlinked structures of the temporal lobe. The medial entorhinal area (MEA) is affected in TLE but mechanisms underlying hyperexcitability of MEA neurons require further elucidation. Previous studies have examined the role of the presubiculum (PrS) in mediating MEA pathophysiology but not the juxtaposed...

Presynaptic Black Box Opened by Pioneers at Biophysics Department in University College London.

The mechanism of chemical synaptic transmission was elucidated at the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and at the squid giant synapse by Katz, Miledi and other researchers. Later progress in molecular biology revealed numerous types of proteins in mammalian central synapses. To establish molecular-functional correlation in synaptic transmission, it now seems essential to re-address the fundamental mechanisms at mammalian central synapses. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recording at the calyx of Held in slice...

Cross-Language Pattern Similarity in the Bilateral Fusiform Cortex Is Associated with Reading Proficiency in Second Language.

Previous studies have found that native Chinese speakers recruit the bilateral fusiform gyrus to read English words, in the same manner as they read Chinese words (i.e., the assimilation process). In this study, we quantified the neural pattern similarity between native (L1) and second languages (L2) by using representational similarity analysis (RSA), and examined the modulatory effects of L2 proficiency on cross-language neural pattern similarity (PS) in the bilateral fusiform cortex. Results showed that,...

Dopamine Signaling Is Critical for Supporting Cue-Driven Behavioral Control.

Mesolimbic dopamine has been implicated in reward learning. Fischbach-Weiss and Janak (this issue) use optogenetics to attenuate dopamine signaling and study its role in cue-driven motivated behaviour.

Assessing the Role of the Left Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Working Memory Guidance: Attentional or Mnemonic? A Neurostimulation Study.

Perceptual selection can be guided by the contents of working memory (WM). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data points to a role of a fronto-parietal and fronto-thalamic networks in WM guidance. Here we assessed the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the left dorsal frontal cortex (lDFC) in a combined WM/attention paradigm. We asked the extent to which the lDFC is implicated in mnemonic and selective attention functions during WM guidance of behaviour. Observers were asked to keep info...

Central nervous system-derived exosomal alpha-synuclein in serum may be a biomarker in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common movement disorder. Alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein) plays a critical role in PD. In this study, we evaluated the level of central nervous system (CNS)-derived exosomal α-synuclein in serum, which may be regarded as a specific peripheral biomarker for PD. We recruited patients with PD in the early stage along with essential tremor (ET), and we recruited age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as healthy controls (HC). We divided patients with PD into the tremor-dominant (...

Voxel-Based Morphometry: Improving the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on an Extreme Learning Machine method from the ADNI cohort.

Computer-aided diagnosis has become a widely-used auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we developed an extreme learning machine (ELM) model to discriminate between patients with AD and normal controls (NCs) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Support vector machine (SVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), and partial least squares (PLS) regression were compared with the ELM model. The calculated characteristics, i.e., texture...

Inner Hair Cell and Neuron Degeneration Contribute to Hearing Loss in a DFNA2-like Mouse Model.

DFNA2 is a progressive deafness caused by mutations in the voltage-activated potassium channel KCNQ4. Hearing loss develops with age from a mild increase in the hearing threshold to profound deafness. Studies using transgenic mice for Kcnq4 expressed in a mixed background demonstrated the implication of outer hair cells at the initial phase. However, it could not explain the last phase mechanisms of the disease. Genetic backgrounds are known to influence disease expressivity. To unmask the cause of profound...

Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes: modulation of locomotion and neural circuit excitability in Drosophila larvae.

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an abundant neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in many species. In Drosophila melanogaster ACh is the neurotransmitter used in peripheral sensory neurons and is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter and neuromodulator within the central nervous system (CNS). The receptors that facilitate cholinergic transmission are divided into two broad subtypes: the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). This receptor...

The impact of stimulus modality on the processing of conflicting sensory information during response inhibition.

Response inhibition is a central aspect of cognitive control. Usually, response inhibition is examined using information from a single sensory modality. Yet, evidence suggests that conflicts between information from different modalities affect response inhibition. It is, however, crucial to consider that there are modality differences in the efficiency to trigger response inhibition that may also modulate the impact of conflicts between different sensory modalities. In the current study, we compared an audi...

Molecular Alterations and Effects of Acute Dehydroepiandrosterone Treatment Following Brief Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: Relevance to Transient Ischemic Attack.

Transient ischemic attack (TIA) represents brief neurological dysfunction of vascular origin without detectable infarction. Despite major clinical relevance characterization of post-TIA molecular changes using appropriate experimental model is lacking and no therapeutic agent has been established yet. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) arose as one of the candidates for cerebral ischemia treatment but its effects on TIA-like condition remain unknown. Seeking to animal model applicable for investigat...

Comparison of Actions between L-DOPA and Different Dopamine Agonists in Striatal DA-Depleted Microcircuits In Vitro: Pre-Clinical Insights.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative illness presenting motor and non-motor symptoms due to the loss of dopaminergic terminals in basal ganglia, most importantly, the striatum. L-DOPA relieves many motor signs. Unfortunately, in the long term, L-DOPA use causes motor disabilities by itself and does not act in comorbid conditions such as depression. These deficiencies have led to search for drugs such as dopamine (DA) receptor agonists (DA-agonists) that allow the reduction of L-DOPA dose. Previou...

Dopamine Burden Triggers Cholesterol Overload Following Disruption of Synaptogenesis in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

The contribution of Dopamine (DA) to minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been demonstrated. However, recent studies have revealed that cholesterol (CHO) treatment substantially increased the risk of dementia. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether CHO was induced by DA overload and its involvement in DA-induced cognitive impairment in MHE. Our study showed that DA treatment triggered CHO biosynthesis via the activation of JNK3/SREBP2 signaling pathway in primary cultured astrocytes. C...

γ-Synuclein Induces Human Cortical Astrocyte Proliferation and Subsequent BDNF Expression and Release.

γ-Synuclein (γ-syn) is expressed by astrocytes in the human nervous system, and increased extracellularly in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Upregulation of γ-syn also coincides with proliferation of glioblastomas and other cancers. In order to better understand regulation and function of extracellular γ-syn, primary human cortical astrocytes were treated with γ-syn conditioned media at various physiological concentrations (50, 100, 150 nM) after c...

Others' Pain Appraisals Modulate the Anticipation and Experience of Subsequent Pain.

The present study investigated how pain appraisals from other individuals modulated self-pain anticipation and perception. Appraisals of pain intensity from 10 other individuals were presented before the participants received identical electrical pain stimulation themselves. In reality, the presented other's pain appraisals, with either low or high in mean and variance, were generated by the experimenter, and were randomly paired with the subsequent electrical stimulation at either low or high intensity. Sp...

The Effects of Biological Sex and Ovarian Hormones on Exercise-Induced Neuroplasticity.

Acute aerobic exercise induces short-term neuroplasticity, although it remains unknown whether biological sex and ovarian hormones influence this response. The present study investigated the effects of biological sex and ovarian hormones on short-term neuroplasticity induced by acute aerobic exercise. Young active adults (n = 17 males and n = 17 females; 21 ± 2 years) participated in two sessions in which TMS measures were acquired immediately before and after a 20-min bout of moderate-intens...

Collateral Projections from the Medullary Dorsal Horn to the Ventral Posteromedial Thalamic Nucleus and the Parafascicular Thalamic Nucleus in the Rat.

Medullary dorsal horn (MDH), the homolog of spinal dorsal horn, plays essential roles in processing of nociceptive signals from orofacial region toward higher centers, such as the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) and parafascicular thalamic nucleus (Pf), which belong to the sensory-discriminative and affective aspects of pain transmission systems at the thalamic level, respectively. In the present study, in order to provide morphological evidence for whether neurons in the MDH send collateral pr...

The Role of S100B in Aerobic Training Efficacy in Older Adults with Mild Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Aerobic training improves cognitive and brain outcomes across different populations and neurocognitive disorders of aging, including mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). However, little is known of the underlying mechanisms through which aerobic training exerts its beneficial effects on the brain. Recently, S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) has been proposed a possible mediator of aerobic training. Thus we conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from the proof-of-co...

Sex differences in neuroplasticity- and stress-related gene expression and protein levels in the rat hippocampus following oxycodone conditioned place preference.

Prescription opioid abuse is a serious public health issue. Recently, we showed that female and male Sprague-Dawley rats acquire conditioned place preference (CPP) to the mu opioid receptor agonist oxycodone. Anatomical analysis of the hippocampus from these rats unveiled sex differences in the opioid system in a way that would support excitation and opiate associative learning processes, especially in females. In this study, we examined the expression and protein densities of opioid, plasticity, stress and...

Laminin-Coated Electrodes Improve Cochlear Implant Function and Post-Insertion Neuronal Survival.

The benefits of Cochlear implant (CI) technology depend among other factors on the proximity of the electrode array to the spiral ganglion neurons. Laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix, regulates Schwann cell proliferation and survival as well as reorganization of actin fibers within their cytoskeleton, which is necessary for myelination of peripheral axons. In this study we explore the effectiveness of laminin-coated electrodes in promoting neuritic outgrowth from auditory neurons towards the e...

Induction of typical and atypical neurogenesis in the adult substantia nigra after mouse embryonic stem cells transplantation.

Neurogenesis in the substantia nigra (SN) has been a controversial issue. Here we report that neurogenesis can be induced in the adult rodent SN by transplantation of embryoid body cells (EBCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. The detection of Sox2 dividing (BrdU) putative host neural precursor cells (NPCs) between 1 and 6 days post-transplantation (dpt) supported the neurogenic capacity of the adult SN. In agreement with the awakening of NPCs by EBCs, only host cells from implant-bearing SN were ...

PET Neuroimaging Reveals Serotonergic and Metabolic Dysfunctions in the Hippocampal Electrical Kindling Model of Epileptogenesis.

Glucose metabolism and serotonergic neurotransmission have been reported to play an important role in epileptogenesis. We therefore aimed to use neuroimaging to evaluate potential alterations in serotonin 5-HT receptor and glucose metabolism during epileptogenesis in the rat electrical kindling model. To achieve this goal, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a rat epileptogenesis model triggered by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus using 2-deoxy-2-[F]fluoro-D-glucose (F-FDG), ...

The Water Diffusion of Brain Following Hypoglycemia in Rats-A Study with Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Neuropathologic Analysis.

We established hypoglycemic rat models and divided them into three groups (the sham group, the acute hypoglycemia group and the recovery group). The brain water diffusion was examined using DWI. Thereafter, neuropathologic examinations were performed in order to evaluate the distribution of brain damage. The expression of AQP4 and Caspase3 was also examined using Western blot. We aimed to determine the specific brain regions which were vulnerable to hypoglycemia in relation to the water diffusion and neurop...


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