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Medical visualization employs elements from computer graphics to create meaningful, interactive visual representations of medical data, and it has become an influential field of research for many advanced applications like radiation oncology, among others. Visual representations employ the user's cognitive capabilities to support and accelerate diagnostic, planning, and quality assurance workflows based on involved patient data.
Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been associated with the efficacy of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors in patients with urothelial cancer. We therefore evaluated the relationship between irAEs and pembrolizumab efficacy in urothelial cancer patients.
There is a paucity of literature examining the impact of timing of surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of the therapeutic modalities used in modern oncology. However, it is sometimes limited in its ability to achieve optimal tumor control by radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity. In delivering radiation therapy, a balance must be achieved between maximizing the dose to the tumor and minimizing any injury to the normal tissues. Amifostine was the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical radiation protector intended to reduce the impact of radiation on no...
HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+ HNSCC) demonstrates favorable outcomes compared to HPV-negative SCC, but distant metastases (DM) still occur. The pattern of DM in HPV+ HNSCC is unclear.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) with molecular barcodes (MB) is a novel method that enables the highly sensitive detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in a relatively wide range of genes.
The clinical course of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complicated, because it often recurs and shows multiple lesions, some of which progress to a more malignant form, shortening the life of the patient. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCC, but the influence of c-Met expression on the clinical course of HCC remains to be fully elucidated.
Retrospective case studies in various cancers have shown clinical benefit from chemotherapy following PD-1 inhibitor progression. We asked whether we see a similar clinical benefit with chemotherapy following PD-1 inhibitor progression in metastatic melanoma. We performed a retrospective study in patients with metastatic melanoma, who had received PD-1 inhibitor-based treatments, subsequently progressed, and eventually received chemotherapy. We identified 25 patients (median age 58 years; range 31-77 years;...
Timely sharing of electronic health records across providers, while ensuring data security and privacy, is essential for prompt care of cancer patients, as well as for the development of medical research and the enhancement of personalized medicine. Yet, it is not trivial to achieve efficient consent management, data exchange, and access-control policy enforcement, in particular, in decentralized settings, and given the gravity of the condition such as cancer. Using blockchain technology (BCT) has been rece...
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). However, considering elderly patients often experience comorbidities and frailty, the utility of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for elderly patients is still debatable. We conducted this study to compare the safety and efficacy of carboplatin and cisplatin in elderly patients with mUC.
Demographic changes and improvement in therapy have shifted the focus of treatment towards chronic diseases and multiple health conditions. This has caused a tremendous increase in data per patient that needs to be integrated longitudinally and across departmental silos. The general increase in the volume of data per diagnostic examination and the number of diagnostic procedures per diagnostic pathway additionally accentuate this data integration challenge.
RNA polymerase I subunit D (POLR1D) is involved in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA precursors and small RNAs, but its mechanism in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains ambiguous. Thus, this research aimed to investigate POLR1D's expression and significance in human CRC patients and evaluate its association with clinicopathological characteristics.
The treatment of kidney cancer usually involves surgery, and in some cases systemic therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to control postsurgical pain in patients undergoing nephrectomy for renal cancer. Nevertheless, the association between these drugs and adverse postsurgical outcomes, including deterioration of renal function, is not fully established.
Predicting the factors that increase the risk of immune-related pneumonitis, a potentially life-threatening complication of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer, is a clinical challenge. Baseline clinical factors such as asthma may portend the development of pneumonitis due to pre-existing airway inflammation prior to immunotherapy.
Postoperative pancreas-related complications (PPRC) can cause critical conditions, including sepsis and intra-abdominal bleeding. Thus, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of clinically significant PPRC as early as possible in the postoperative period. Some authors have reported the use of amylase concentration of the drainage fluid (dAmy) to predict PPRC. However, the positive predictive value of dAmy alone is not sufficient.
Endometrial cancer currently represents the most frequent gynecologic malignancy in Western countries, and the seventh most common cancer in women. For advanced-stage disease, the recurrence risk is high, and the site of the relapse is heterogeneous with localized or spread peritoneal disease. There are few therapeutic strategies, and the quality of life is poor.
The present study evaluated the potential benefit of adding cetuximab to neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or palliative standard therapy for pancreatic cancer.
It is unclear for whom new anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) agents, such as pertuzumab and T-DM1, should be considered. We investigated prognostic factors before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) among HER2-positive invasive breast cancer patients and those after NAC among patients who did not achieve pathological complete response (pCR) using conventional adjuvant trastuzumab.
Magnesium premedication is reported to have a significant effect on reducing cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in several types of cancer. However, the effectiveness of magnesium administration in reducing nephrotoxicity remains unknown in esophageal cancer, especially regarding neoadjuvant therapy.
Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene overexpression in breast carcinoma cell lines has been shown to drive mammary carcinogenesis and tumor growth and invasion through its effects on mammary stem cells.
Soluble CD27 (sCD27) is associated with somatic immune reaction status. Moreover, sCD27 level is associated with the prognosis of patients with prostate cancer who receive immunotherapy.
Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) followed by systemic therapy had been considered the standard of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients since two clinical trials established its role during the cytokines era. With introduction of new and effective drugs, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapies, the role of CN started to be challenged. Retrospective studies conducted during the targeted therapy era pointed to better outcomes when CN was associated with systemic treatmen...
Preclinical studies indicated that imatinib may have single-agent activity in glioblastoma through inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity and also that it might enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. We therefore sought to investigate clinical efficacy in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma in combination with radiotherapy.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by surgery is a promising treatment strategy for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Severe toxicity associated with the treatment may reduce the dose intensity of chemotherapy, resulting in the effect of chemotherapy being attenuated. Recently, skeletal muscle mass has been reported to be associated with the treatment outcomes of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether pretreatment skeletal muscle mass is a predictor of adverse events as ...
The histologic response to chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. Thus, we attempted to develop an effective neoadjuvant regimen to achieve an improvement in histologic response.