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PubMed Journal Database | PLoS biology RSS

00:05 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 833 from PLoS biology

A blueprint of mammalian cortical connectomes.

The cerebral cortex of mammals exhibits intricate interareal wiring. Moreover, mammalian cortices differ vastly in size, cytological composition, and phylogenetic distance. Given such complexity and pronounced species differences, it is a considerable challenge to decipher organizational principles of mammalian connectomes. Here, we demonstrate species-specific and species-general unifying principles linking the physical, cytological, and connectional dimensions of architecture in the mouse, cat, marmoset, ...

Comprehensive profiling of the STE20 kinase family defines features essential for selective substrate targeting and signaling output.

Specificity within protein kinase signaling cascades is determined by direct and indirect interactions between kinases and their substrates. While the impact of localization and recruitment on kinase-substrate targeting can be readily assessed, evaluating the relative importance of direct phosphorylation site interactions remains challenging. In this study, we examine the STE20 family of protein serine-threonine kinases to investigate basic mechanisms of substrate targeting. We used peptide arrays to define...

Chronotopic maps in human supplementary motor area.

Time is a fundamental dimension of everyday experiences. We can unmistakably sense its passage and adjust our behavior accordingly. Despite its ubiquity, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the capacity to perceive time remains unclear. Here, in two experiments using ultrahigh-field 7-Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that in the medial premotor cortex (supplementary motor area [SMA]) of the human brain, neural units tuned to different durations are orderly mapped in contiguous...

A genetic switch for worker nutrition-mediated traits in honeybees.

Highly social insects are characterized by caste dimorphism, with distinct size differences of reproductive organs between fertile queens and the more or less sterile workers. An abundance of nutrition or instruction via diet-specific compounds has been proposed as explanations for the nutrition-driven queen and worker polyphenism. Here, we further explored these models in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) using worker nutrition rearing and a novel mutational screening approach using the clustered regularly int...

Ablating astrocyte insulin receptors leads to delayed puberty and hypogonadism in mice.

Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and infertility. Mice that lack insulin receptors (IRs) throughout development in both neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells are known to exhibit subfertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, attempts to recapitulate this phenotype by targeting specific neurons have failed. To determine whether astrocytic insulin sensing plays a role in the regulation of fertility, we generated mice lacking...

Lateral hypothalamic neurotensin neurons promote arousal and hyperthermia.

Sleep and wakefulness are greatly influenced by various physiological and psychological factors, but the neuronal elements responsible for organizing sleep-wake behavior in response to these factors are largely unknown. In this study, we report that a subset of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) expressing the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts) is critical for orchestrating sleep-wake responses to acute psychological and physiological challenges or stressors. We show that selective activation of NtsL...

γ-proteobacteria eject their polar flagella under nutrient depletion, retaining flagellar motor relic structures.

Bacteria switch only intermittently to motile planktonic lifestyles under favorable conditions. Under chronic nutrient deprivation, however, bacteria orchestrate a switch to stationary phase, conserving energy by altering metabolism and stopping motility. About two-thirds of bacteria use flagella to swim, but how bacteria deactivate this large molecular machine remains unclear. Here, we describe the previously unreported ejection of polar motors by γ-proteobacteria. We show that these bacteria eject their ...

Perceptual inference employs intrinsic alpha frequency to resolve perceptual ambiguity.

The brain uses its intrinsic dynamics to actively predict observed sensory inputs, especially under perceptual ambiguity. However, it remains unclear how this inference process is neurally implemented in biasing perception of ambiguous inputs towards the predicted percepts. The process of perceptual inference can be well illustrated by the phenomenon of bistable apparent motion in the Ternus display, in which subjective perception spontaneously alternates between element motion (EM) and group motion (GM) pe...

Spontaneously slow-cycling subpopulations of human cells originate from activation of stress-response pathways.

Slow-cycling subpopulations exist in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian systems. In the case of cancer, slow-cycling subpopulations have been proposed to give rise to drug resistance. However, the origin of slow-cycling human cells is poorly studied, in large part due to lack of markers to identify these rare cells. Slow-cycling cells pass through a noncycling period marked by low CDK2 activity and high p21 levels. Here, we use this knowledge to isolate these naturally slow-cycling cells from a heterogeneous po...

Environment-induced same-sex mating in the yeast Candida albicans through the Hsf1-Hsp90 pathway.

While sexual reproduction is pervasive in eukaryotic cells, the strategies employed by fungal species to achieve and complete sexual cycles is highly diverse and complex. Many fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, are homothallic (able to mate with their own mitotic descendants) because of homothallic switching (HO) endonuclease-mediated mating-type switching. Under laboratory conditions, the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can undergo both heterothallic and homotha...

The histone methyltransferase G9a regulates tolerance to oxidative stress-induced energy consumption.

Stress responses are crucial processes that require activation of genetic programs that protect from the stressor. Stress responses are also energy consuming and can thus be deleterious to the organism. The mechanisms coordinating energy consumption during stress response in multicellular organisms are not well understood. Here, we show that loss of the epigenetic regulator G9a in Drosophila causes a shift in the transcriptional and metabolic responses to oxidative stress (OS) that leads to decreased surviv...

Hotspots of human impact on threatened terrestrial vertebrates.

Conserving threatened species requires identifying where across their range they are being impacted by threats, yet this remains unresolved across most of Earth. Here, we present a global analysis of cumulative human impacts on threatened species by using a spatial framework that jointly considers the co-occurrence of eight threatening processes and the distribution of 5,457 terrestrial vertebrates. We show that impacts to species are widespread, occurring across 84% of Earth's surface, and identify hotspot...

Planthopper bugs use a fast, cyclic elastic recoil mechanism for effective vibrational communication at small body size.

Vibrations through substrates are an important source of information for diverse organisms, from nematodes to elephants. The fundamental challenge for small animals using vibrational communication is to move their limited mass fast enough to provide sufficient kinetic energy for effective information transfer through the substrate whilst optimising energy efficiency over repeated cycles. Here, we describe a vibratory organ found across a commercially important group of plant-feeding insects, the planthopper...

Coupling S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation to growth: Design and uses.

We present a selection design that couples S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation to growth. We demonstrate its use in improving the enzyme activities of not only N-type and O-type methyltransferases by 2-fold but also an acetyltransferase of another enzyme category when linked to a methylation pathway in Escherichia coli using adaptive laboratory evolution. We also demonstrate its application for drug discovery using a catechol O-methyltransferase and its inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone. Implementa...

miR-181a/b-1 controls thymic selection of Treg cells and tunes their suppressive capacity.

The interdependence of selective cues during development of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the thymus and their suppressive function remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed this interdependence by taking advantage of highly dynamic changes in expression of microRNA 181 family members miR-181a-1 and miR-181b-1 (miR-181a/b-1) during late T-cell development with very high levels of expression during thymocyte selection, followed by massive down-regulation in the periphery. Loss of miR-181a/b-1 r...

Multiple functional neurosteroid binding sites on GABAA receptors.

Neurosteroids are endogenous modulators of neuronal excitability and nervous system development and are being developed as anesthetic agents and treatments for psychiatric diseases. While gamma amino-butyric acid Type A (GABAA) receptors are the primary molecular targets of neurosteroid action, the structural details of neurosteroid binding to these proteins remain ill defined. We synthesized neurosteroid analogue photolabeling reagents in which the photolabeling groups were placed at three positions around...

Correction: A proposal for the future of scientific publishing in the life sciences.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000116.].

Constitutively active BRS3 is a genuinely orphan GPCR in placental mammals.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in physiology and disease and represent the most productive drug targets. Orphan GPCRs, with their endogenous ligands unknown, were considered a source of drug targets and consequently attract great interest to identify their endogenous cognate ligands for deorphanization. However, a contrary view to the ubiquitous existence of endogenous ligands for every GPCR is that there might be a significant overlooked fraction of orphan GPCRs that function co...

Correction: Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006128.].

Mysteries in embryonic development: How can errors arise so frequently at the beginning of mammalian life?

Chromosome segregation errors occur frequently during female meiosis but also in the first mitoses of mammalian preimplantation development. Such errors can lead to aneuploidy, spontaneous abortions, and birth defects. Some of the mechanisms underlying these errors in meiosis have been deciphered but which mechanisms could cause chromosome missegregation in the first embryonic cleavage divisions is mostly a "mystery". In this article, we describe the starting conditions and challenges of these preimplantati...

Laws of concatenated perception: Vision goes for novelty, decisions for perseverance.

Every instant of perception depends on a cascade of brain processes calibrated to the history of sensory and decisional events. In the present work, we show that human visual perception is constantly shaped by two contrasting forces exerted by sensory adaptation and past decisions. In a series of experiments, we used multilevel modeling and cross-validation approaches to investigate the impact of previous stimuli and decisions on behavioral reports during adjustment and forced-choice tasks. Our results reve...

A polyploid admixed origin of beer yeasts derived from European and Asian wine populations.

Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used to make beer, bread, and wine are genetically and phenotypically distinct from wild populations associated with trees. The origins of these domesticated populations are not always clear; human-associated migration and admixture with wild populations have had a strong impact on S. cerevisiae population structure. We examined the population genetic history of beer strains and found that ale strains and the S. cerevisiae portion of allotetraploid lager strains were deri...

A season for all things: Phenological imprints in Wikipedia usage and their relevance to conservation.

Phenology plays an important role in many human-nature interactions, but these seasonal patterns are often overlooked in conservation. Here, we provide the first broad exploration of seasonal patterns of interest in nature across many species and cultures. Using data from Wikipedia, a large online encyclopedia, we analyzed 2.33 billion pageviews to articles for 31,751 species across 245 languages. We show that seasonality plays an important role in how and when people interact with plants and animals online...

Physiology and effects of nucleosides in mice lacking all four adenosine receptors.

Adenosine is a constituent of many molecules of life; increased free extracellular adenosine indicates cell damage or metabolic stress. The importance of adenosine signaling in basal physiology, as opposed to adaptive responses to danger/damage situations, is unclear. We generated mice lacking all four adenosine receptors (ARs), Adora1-/-;Adora2a-/-;Adora2b-/-;Adora3-/- (quad knockout [QKO]), to enable investigation of the AR dependence of physiologic processes, focusing on body temperature. The QKO mice de...

TLR9-mediated dendritic cell activation uncovers mammalian ganglioside species with specific ceramide backbones that activate invariant natural killer T cells.

CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a heterogeneous population of lipid-reactive T cells that are involved in many immune responses, mediated through T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and/or independent activation. Although numerous microbial lipid antigens (Ags) have been identified, several lines of evidence have suggested the existence of relevant Ags of endogenous origin. However, the identification of their precise nature as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in their...


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