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PubMed Journal Database | PLoS genetics RSS

07:55 EDT 26th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,600+ from PLoS genetics

Gata4 regulates hedgehog signaling and Gata6 expression for outflow tract development.

Dominant mutations of Gata4, an essential cardiogenic transcription factor (TF), were known to cause outflow tract (OFT) defects in both human and mouse, but the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. In this study, Gata4 haploinsufficiency in mice was found to result in OFT defects including double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and ventricular septum defects (VSDs). Gata4 was shown to be required for Hedgehog (Hh)-receiving progenitors within the second heart field (SHF) for normal OFT alignment. Re...

Breaking the Y.

An Arabidopsis FANCJ helicase homologue is required for DNA crosslink repair and rDNA repeat stability.

Proteins of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) complementation group are required for crosslink (CL) repair in humans and their loss leads to severe pathological phenotypes. Here we characterize a homolog of the Fe-S cluster helicase FANCJ in the model plant Arabidopsis, AtFANCJB, and show that it is involved in interstrand CL repair. It acts at a presumably early step in concert with the nuclease FAN1 but independently of the nuclease AtMUS81, and is epistatic to both error-prone and error-free post-replicative repai...

Stop-codon read-through arises largely from molecular errors and is generally nonadaptive.

Stop-codon read-through refers to the phenomenon that a ribosome goes past the stop codon and continues translating into the otherwise untranslated region (UTR) of a transcript. Recent ribosome-profiling experiments in eukaryotes uncovered widespread stop-codon read-through that also varies among tissues, prompting the adaptive hypothesis that stop-codon read-through is an important, regulated mechanism for generating proteome diversity. Here we propose and test a competing hypothesis that stop-codon read-t...

De novo gene birth.

Metabolites of lactic acid bacteria present in fermented foods are highly potent agonists of human hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3.

The interplay of microbiota and the human host is physiologically crucial in health and diseases. The beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), permanently colonizing the human intestine or transiently obtained from food, have been extensively reported. However, the molecular understanding of how LAB modulate human physiology is still limited. G protein-coupled receptors for hydroxycarboxylic acids (HCAR) are regulators of immune functions and energy homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary ...

The dPix-Git complex is essential to coordinate epithelial morphogenesis and regulate myosin during Drosophila egg chamber development.

How biochemical and mechanical information are integrated during tissue development is a central question in morphogenesis. In many biological systems, the PIX-GIT complex localises to focal adhesions and integrates both physical and chemical information. We used Drosophila melanogaster egg chamber formation to study the function of PIX and GIT orthologues (dPix and Git, respectively), and discovered a central role for this complex in controlling myosin activity and epithelial monolayering. We found that Gi...

CBX2 is required to stabilize the testis pathway by repressing Wnt signaling.

XX and XY fetal gonads are initially bipotential, poised between the ovary and testis fate. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that commitment to testis fate requires the repression of genes associated with ovary fate. It was previously shown that loss of CBX2, the subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) that binds H3K27me3 and mediates silencing, leads to ovary development in XY mice and humans. While it had been proposed that CBX2 is an activator of the testis-determining gene Sry, we investig...

The subunit of RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase OsFIP regulates early degeneration of microspores in rice.

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation plays important roles during development in different species. However, knowledge of m6A RNA methylation in monocots remains limited. In this study, we reported that OsFIP and OsMTA2 are the components of m6A RNA methyltransferase complex in rice and uncovered a previously unknown function of m6A RNA methylation in regulation of plant sporogenesis. Importantly, OsFIP is essential for rice male gametogenesis. Knocking out of OsFIP results in early degeneration of micr...

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina regulates the assembly and disassembly of the synaptonemal complex in Drosophila females.

During early meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes are connected along their entire lengths by a proteinaceous tripartite structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC). Although the components that comprise the SC are predominantly studied in this canonical ribbon-like structure, they can also polymerize into repeated structures known as polycomplexes. We find that in Drosophila oocytes, the ability of SC components to assemble into canonical tripartite SC requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase Seven in abs...

Transcriptomic basis and evolution of the ant nurse-larval social interactome.

Development is often strongly regulated by interactions among close relatives, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In eusocial insects, interactions between caregiving worker nurses and larvae regulate larval development and resultant adult phenotypes. Here, we begin to characterize the social interactome regulating ant larval development by collecting and sequencing the transcriptomes of interacting nurses and larvae across time. We find that the majority of nurse and larval transc...

Genetics of cocaine and methamphetamine consumption and preference in Drosophila melanogaster.

Illicit use of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine, constitutes a significant public health problem. Whereas neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of these drugs are well-characterized, genetic factors that account for individual variation in susceptibility to substance abuse and addiction remain largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster can serve as a translational model for studies on substance abuse, since flies have a dopamine transporter that can bind cocaine and methamphetamine, ...

Correction: A missense variant in FTCD is associated with arsenic metabolism and toxicity phenotypes in Bangladesh.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007984.].

The processivity factor Pol32 mediates nuclear localization of DNA polymerase delta and prevents chromosomal fragile site formation in Drosophila development.

The Pol32 protein is one of the universal subunits of DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), which is responsible for genome replication in eukaryotic cells. Although the role of Pol32 in DNA repair has been well-characterized, its exact function in genome replication remains obscure as studies in single cell systems have not established an essential role for Pol32 in the process. Here we characterize Pol32 in the context of Drosophila melanogaster development. In the rapidly dividing embryonic cells, loss of Pol32 ha...

TDP-43 induces mitochondrial damage and activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

Mutations in or dys-regulation of the TDP-43 gene have been associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy, a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases including Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The underlying molecular and cellular defects, however, remain unclear. Here, we report a systematic study combining analyses of patient brain samples with cellular and animal models for TDP-43 proteinopathy. Electron microscopy (EM) analyses of patient samples revealed prominent ...

An ADAMTS3 missense variant is associated with Norwich Terrier upper airway syndrome.

In flat-faced dog breeds, air resistance caused by skull conformation is believed to be a major determinant of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). The clinical presentation of BOAS is heterogeneous, suggesting determinants independent of skull conformation contribute to airway disease. Norwich Terriers, a mesocephalic breed, are predisposed to Upper Airway Syndrome (UAS), a disease whose pathological features overlap with BOAS. Our health screening clinic examined and scored the airways of 40...

HDAC1-mediated repression of the retinoic acid-responsive gene ripply3 promotes second heart field development.

Coordinated transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms that direct development of the later differentiating second heart field (SHF) progenitors remain largely unknown. Here, we show that a novel zebrafish histone deacetylase 1 (hdac1) mutant allele cardiac really gone (crg) has a deficit of ventricular CMs and smooth muscle within the outflow tract (OFT) due to both cell and non-cell autonomous loss in SHF progenitor proliferation. Cyp26-deficient embryos, which have increased retinoic acid (RA) levels, hav...

MicroRNA26 attenuates vascular smooth muscle maturation via endothelial BMP signalling.

As small regulatory transcripts, microRNAs (miRs) act as genetic 'fine tuners' of posttranscriptional events, and as genetic switches to promote phenotypic switching. The miR miR26a targets the BMP signalling effector, smad1. We show that loss of miR26a leads to hemorrhage (a loss of vascular stability) in vivo, suggesting altered vascular differentiation. Reduction in miR26a levels increases smad1 mRNA and phospho-Smad1 (pSmad1) levels. We show that increasing BMP signalling by overexpression of smad1 also...

Whole genome sequencing of experimental hybrids supports meiosis-like sexual recombination in Leishmania.

Hybrid genotypes have been repeatedly described among natural isolates of Leishmania, and the recovery of experimental hybrids from sand flies co-infected with different strains or species of Leishmania has formally demonstrated that members of the genus possess the machinery for genetic exchange. As neither gamete stages nor cell fusion events have been directly observed during parasite development in the vector, we have relied on a classical genetic analysis to determine if Leishmania has a true sexual cy...

How microbes "jeopardize" the modern synthesis.

Selection of Candida albicans trisomy during oropharyngeal infection results in a commensal-like phenotype.

When the fungus Candida albicans proliferates in the oropharyngeal cavity during experimental oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), it undergoes large-scale genome changes at a much higher frequency than when it grows in vitro. Previously, we identified a specific whole chromosome amplification, trisomy of Chr6 (Chr6x3), that was highly overrepresented among strains recovered from the tongues of mice with OPC. To determine the functional significance of this trisomy, we assessed the virulence of two Chr6 trisomi...

Maternal Nanos inhibits Importin-α2/Pendulin-dependent nuclear import to prevent somatic gene expression in the Drosophila germline.

Repression of somatic gene expression in germline progenitors is one of the critical mechanisms involved in establishing the germ/soma dichotomy. In Drosophila, the maternal Nanos (Nos) and Polar granule component (Pgc) proteins are required for repression of somatic gene expression in the primordial germ cells, or pole cells. Pgc suppresses RNA polymerase II-dependent global transcription in pole cells, but it remains unclear how Nos represses somatic gene expression. Here, we show that Nos represses somat...

Towards the new normal: Transcriptomic convergence and genomic legacy of the two subgenomes of an allopolyploid weed (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

Allopolyploidy has played a major role in plant evolution but its impact on genome diversity and expression patterns remains to be understood. Some studies found important genomic and transcriptomic changes in allopolyploids, whereas others detected a strong parental legacy and more subtle changes. The allotetraploid C. bursa-pastoris originated around 100,000 years ago and one could expect the genetic polymorphism of the two subgenomes to follow similar trajectories and their transcriptomes to start functi...

Sir2 suppresses transcription-mediated displacement of Mcm2-7 replicative helicases at the ribosomal DNA repeats.

Repetitive DNA sequences within eukaryotic heterochromatin are poorly transcribed and replicate late in S-phase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histone deacetylase Sir2 is required for both transcriptional silencing and late replication at the repetitive ribosomal DNA arrays (rDNA). Despite the widespread association between transcription and replication, it remains unclear how transcription might impinge on replication, or vice versa. Here we show that, when silencing of an RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II)...

Two modes of transvection at the eyes absent gene of Drosophila demonstrate plasticity in transcriptional regulatory interactions in cis and in trans.

For many genes, proper gene expression requires coordinated and dynamic interactions between multiple regulatory elements, each of which can either promote or silence transcription. In Drosophila, the complexity of the regulatory landscape is further complicated by the tight physical pairing of homologous chromosomes, which can permit regulatory elements to interact in trans, a phenomenon known as transvection. To better understand how gene expression can be programmed through cis- and trans-regulatory inte...


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