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00:58 EST 12th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,600+ from PLoS pathogens

Deep sequence analysis of HIV adaptation following vertical transmission reveals the impact of immune pressure on the evolution of HIV.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can adapt to an individual's T cell immune response via genomic mutations that affect antigen recognition and impact disease outcome. These viral adaptations are specific to the host's human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, as these molecules determine which peptides are presented to T cells. As HLA molecules are highly polymorphic at the population level, horizontal transmission events are most commonly between HLA-mismatched donor/recipient pairs, representing new immune...

Structural evidence for the critical role of the prion protein hydrophobic region in forming an infectious prion.

Prion or PrPSc is the proteinaceous infectious agent causing prion diseases in various mammalian species. Despite decades of research, the structural basis for PrPSc formation and prion infectivity remains elusive. To understand the role of the hydrophobic region in forming infectious prion at the molecular level, we report X-ray crystal structures of mouse (Mo) prion protein (PrP) (residues 89-230) in complex with a nanobody (Nb484). Using the recombinant prion propagation system, we show that the binding ...

Dengue virus reduces AGPAT1 expression to alter phospholipids and enhance infection in Aedes aegypti.

More than half of the world population is at risk of dengue virus (DENV) infection because of the global distribution of its mosquito vectors. DENV is an envelope virus that relies on host lipid membranes for its life-cycle. Here, we characterized how DENV hijacks the mosquito lipidome to identify targets for novel transmission-blocking interventions. To describe metabolic changes throughout the mosquito DENV cycle, we deployed a Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) workflow inc...

Disrupting MLV integrase:BET protein interaction biases integration into quiescent chromatin and delays but does not eliminate tumor activation in a MYC/Runx2 mouse model.

Murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase (IN) lacking the C-terminal tail peptide (TP) loses its interaction with the host bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins and displays decreased integration at promoter/enhancers and transcriptional start sites/CpG islands. MLV lacking the IN TP via an altered open reading frame was used to infect tumorigenesis mouse model (MYC/Runx2) animals to observe integration patterns and phenotypic effects, but viral passage resulted in the restoration of the IN TP through s...

Toscana virus non-structural protein NSs acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting RIG-I degradation.

It is known that the non-structural protein (NSs) of Toscana virus (TOSV), an emergent sandfly-borne virus causing meningitis or more severe central nervous system injuries in humans, exerts its function triggering RIG-I for degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, thus breaking off the IFN-β production. The non-structural protein of different members of Bunyavirales has recently appeared as a fundamental protagonist in immunity evasion through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation targets. We s...

IL-22 produced by type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) reduces the mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Previously, we found that pathological immune responses enhance the mortality rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current study, we evaluated the role of the cytokine IL-22 (known to play a protective role in bacterial infections) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) in regulating inflammation and mortality in Mtb-infected T2DM mice. IL-22 levels were significantly lower in Mtb-infected T2DM mice than in nondiabetic Mtb-infected mice. Simil...

A role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in Mouse Gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) lytic replication and reactivation from latency.

The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) protein and the hypoxic microenvironment are critical for infection and pathogenesis by the oncogenic gammaherpesviruses (γHV), Kaposi' Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, understanding the role of HIF1α during the virus life cycle and its biological relevance in the context of host pathogenesis has been challenging due to the lack of animal models for human γHV. To study the role of HIF1α, we employed the murine gam...

Distinct rates and patterns of spread of the major HIV-1 subtypes in Central and East Africa.

Since the ignition of the HIV-1 group M pandemic in the beginning of the 20th century, group M lineages have spread heterogeneously throughout the world. Subtype C spread rapidly through sub-Saharan Africa and is currently the dominant HIV lineage worldwide. Yet the epidemiological and evolutionary circumstances that contributed to its epidemiological expansion remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse 346 novel pol sequences from the DRC to compare the evolutionary dynamics of the main HIV-1 lineages, sub...

Novel cholinesterase paralogs of Schistosoma mansoni have perceived roles in cholinergic signaling and drug detoxification and are essential for parasite survival.

Cholinesterase (ChE) function in schistosomes is essential for orchestration of parasite neurotransmission but has been poorly defined with respect to the molecules responsible. Interrogation of the S. mansoni genome has revealed the presence of three ChE domain-containing genes (Smche)s, which we have shown to encode two functional acetylcholinesterases (AChE)s (Smache1 -smp_154600 and Smache2 -smp_136690) and a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (Smbche1 -smp_125350). Antibodies to recombinant forms of each SmC...

Full-length human cytomegalovirus terminase pUL89 adopts a two-domain structure specific for DNA packaging.

A key step in replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the host cell is the generation and packaging of unit-length genomes into preformed capsids. The enzymes involved in this process are the terminases. The HCMV terminase complex consists of two terminase subunits, the ATPase pUL56 and the nuclease pUL89. A potential third component pUL51 has been proposed. Even though the terminase subunit pUL89 has been shown to be essential for DNA packaging and interaction with pUL56, it is not known how pUL89 m...

A novel genetic circuitry governing hypoxic metabolic flexibility, commensalism and virulence in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

Inside the human host, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans colonizes predominantly oxygen-poor niches such as the gastrointestinal and vaginal tracts, but also oxygen-rich environments such as cutaneous epithelial cells and oral mucosa. This suppleness requires an effective mechanism to reversibly reprogram the primary metabolism in response to oxygen variation. Here, we have uncovered that Snf5, a subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is a major transcriptional regulator that links oxygen stat...

IgG Fc-binding motif-conjugated HIV-1 fusion inhibitor exhibits improved potency and in vivo half-life: Potential application in combination with broad neutralizing antibodies.

The clinical application of conventional peptide drugs, such as the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide, is limited by their short half-life in vivo. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new strategy to extend the in vivo half-life of a short HIV-1 fusion inhibitory peptide, CP24, by fusing it with the human IgG Fc-binding peptide (IBP). The newly engineered peptide IBP-CP24 exhibited potent and broad anti-HIV-1 activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 173.7 nM for inhibiting a broad spectrum of ...

Longitudinal bioluminescent imaging of HIV-1 infection during antiretroviral therapy and treatment interruption in humanized mice.

Non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (NIBLI) of HIV-1 infection dynamics allows for real-time monitoring of viral spread and the localization of infected cell populations in living animals. In this report, we describe full-length replication-competent GFP and Nanoluciferase (Nluc) expressing HIV-1 reporter viruses from two clinical transmitted / founder (T/F) stains: TRJO.c and Q23.BG505. By infecting humanized mice with these HIV-1 T/F reporter viruses, we were able to directly monitor longitudinal viral sp...

Pathogenicity island excision during an infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is required for crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier in mice to cause systemic infection.

Pathogenicity island excision is a phenomenon that occurs in several Salmonella enterica serovars and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. ROD21 is an excisable pathogenicity island found in the chromosome of S. Enteritidis, S. Dublin and S. Typhi among others, which contain several genes encoding virulence-associated proteins. Excision of ROD21 may play a role in the ability of S. Enteritidis to cause a systemic infection in mice. Our previous studies have shown that Salmonella strains unable to...

ALVAC-HIV B/C candidate HIV vaccine efficacy dependent on neutralization profile of challenge virus and adjuvant dose and type.

The ALVAC-HIV clade B/AE and equivalent SIV-based/gp120 + Alum vaccines successfully decreased the risk of virus acquisition in humans and macaques. Here, we tested the efficacy of HIV clade B/C ALVAC/gp120 vaccine candidates + MF59 or different doses of Aluminum hydroxide (Alum) against SHIV-Cs of varying neutralization sensitivity in macaques. Low doses of Alum induced higher mucosal V2-specific IgA that increased the risk of Tier 2 SHIV-C acquisition. High Alum dosage, in contrast, elicited serum IgG to ...

The mosquito melanization response requires hierarchical activation of non-catalytic clip domain serine protease homologs.

Serine protease cascades regulate important insect immune responses namely melanization and Toll pathway activation. An important component of these cascades are clip-domain serine protease homologs (cSPHs), which are non-catalytic, but essential for activating the enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO) in the melanization response during septic infections. The activation of cSPHs requires their proteolytic cleavage, yet factors that control their activation and the complexity of their interactions within these casc...

CDR3α drives selection of the immunodominant Epstein Barr virus (EBV) BRLF1-specific CD8 T cell receptor repertoire in primary infection.

The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is an essential component of the CD8 T-cell immune response. Here, we seek to investigate factors that drive selection of TCR repertoires specific to the HLA-A2-restricted immunodominant epitope BRLF1109-117 (YVLDHLIVV) over the course of primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Using single-cell paired TCRαβ sequencing of tetramer sorted CD8 T cells ex vivo, we show at the clonal level that recognition of the HLA-A2-restricted BRLF1 (YVL-BR, BRLF-1109) epitope is m...

Amblyomma americanum ticks utilizes countervailing pro and anti-inflammatory proteins to evade host defense.

Feeding and transmission of tick-borne disease (TBD) agents by ticks are facilitated by tick saliva proteins (TSP). Thus, defining functional roles of TSPs in tick evasion is expected to reveal potential targets in tick-antigen based vaccines to prevent TBD infections. This study describes two types of Amblyomma americanum TSPs: those that are similar to LPS activate macrophage (MΦ) to express pro-inflammation (PI) markers and another set that suppresses PI marker expression by activated MΦ. We show that ...

Mitochondrial dynamics in parasitic protists.

The shape and number of mitochondria respond to the metabolic needs during the cell cycle of the eukaryotic cell. In the best-studied model systems of animals and fungi, the cells contain many mitochondria, each carrying its own nucleoid. The organelles, however, mostly exist as a dynamic network, which undergoes constant cycles of division and fusion. These mitochondrial dynamics are driven by intricate protein machineries centered around dynamin-related proteins (DRPs). Here, we review recent advances on ...

NCOA2 promotes lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by enhancing the expression of the master switch protein RTA.

Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is important for persistent infection in the host as well as viral oncogenesis. The replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by KSHV ORF50 plays a central role in the switch from viral latency to lytic replication. Given that RTA is a transcriptional activator and RTA expression is sufficient to activate complete lytic replication, RTA must possess an elaborate mechanism for regulating its protein abundance. Previous studies have de...

Correction: The bZIP Transcription Factor MoAP1 Mediates the Oxidative Stress Response and is Critical for Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001302.].

Reprogramming the unfolded protein response for replication by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

The unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes a critical component of host innate immunity against microbial infections. In this report, we show that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) utilizes the UPR machinery for its own benefit. We provide evidence that the virus targets the UPR central regulator GRP78 for proteasomal degradation via a mechanism that requires viral glycoprotein GP2a, while both IRE1-XBP1s and PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling branche...

Regulation of macrophage activity by surface receptors contained within Borrelia burgdorferi-enriched phagosomal fractions.

Macrophages mediate the elimination of pathogens by phagocytosis resulting in the activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to the production of cytokines, chemokines and other factors. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, causes a wide variety of pro-inflammatory symptoms. The proinflammatory capacity of macrophages is intimately related to the internalization of the spirochete. However, most receptors mediating this process are largely unknown. We have applied a multiomic a...

Multi-strain Tn-Seq reveals common daptomycin resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of antibiotic resistance-associated mortality in the United States. Given the reality of multi-drug resistant infections, it is imperative that we establish and maintain a pipeline of new compounds to replace or supplement our current antibiotics. A first step towards this goal is to prioritize targets by identifying the genes most consistently required for survival across the S. aureus phylogeny. Here we report the first direct comparison o...

Kinetics of HTLV-1 reactivation from latency quantified by single-molecule RNA FISH and stochastic modelling.

The human T cell leukemia virus HTLV-1 establishes a persistent infection in vivo in which the viral sense-strand transcription is usually silent at a given time in each cell. However, cellular stress responses trigger the reactivation of HTLV-1, enabling the virus to transmit to a new host cell. Using single-molecule RNA FISH, we measured the kinetics of the HTLV-1 transcriptional reactivation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from HTLV-1+ individuals. The abundance of the HTLV-1 sense...


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