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Bladder cancer (BC) is a common malignancy worldwide. Signal peptidase complex 18 (SPC18) protein, which is encoded by the SEC11A gene, is one of the subunits of the signal peptidase complex and induces transforming growth factor-α secretion. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and function of SPC18 protein in human BC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small-regulatory RNA molecules, were closely involved in the pathogenesis of a broad-spectrum of colorectal cancer (CRC). But role of miR-147b in CRC still remains unclear.
The interaction of K27M mutation in histone H3 (H3K27M mutation) with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is facilitated by the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). Subsequently, this interaction leads to the global reduction level of H3K27me3. We analyzed the EZH2 expression level in H3K27M mutation-positive tumors and revealed the association of high EZH2 expression with poor survival.
Helicobacter pylori eradication is expected to prevent gastric cancer. However, morphological alterations after eradication often hinder accurate diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated endoscopic and histological changes in gastric tumors after eradication of H. pylori in a time-dependent manner.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) and a defective mismatch repair (MMR) system were described as beneficial tumor features for response to immune checkpoint therapy (PD-1 blockade). Meanwhile, the FDA approved PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition treatment for any solid tumor showing MSI and/or defects in the MMR system. For squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis, no data on the frequency of MSI and altered MMR protein expression are available to date. Therefore, we investigated the MSI status and the expression of MMR...
Pituitary adenomas (PAs) may rarely occur in well-defined hereditary conditions, like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) associated with germline mutations in MEN1 and AIP, respectively. This study aimed to assess MEN1 genetic abnormalities in AIP mutation-negative FIPA patients, not associated with MEN1 components.
To examine whether gastric carcinoma (GC) with chromosomal instability (CIN-type GC), the largest category in the Cancer Genome Atlas classification, consists of a single genetic lineage, we conducted a multisampling analysis of genomic DNA copy-number profile.
Extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in the axillary lymph node of breast cancer patients is extremely rare but when encountered can represent a diagnostic challenge. We aim to highlight this incidental finding as a diagnostic pitfall which can be mistaken for metastatic carcinoma (particularly of the metaplastic type). We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian female with a family history of cancer. Core biopsy revealed that she had grade II oestrogen receptor-negative, Her2-positive invasive ductal car...
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released from various inflammatory cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells, which have been implicated in the modulation of immune response in asthma. This study aimed to investigate whether exosomes from DCs activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a role in T-helper cell differentiation through the OX40 ligand (OX40L).
To evaluate the potential beneficial effects of hawthorn leaf flavonoids (HLF) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a rat model of disease and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism.
RUNX1 is a crucial transcription factor for hematological stem cells and well-known for its association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Besides the translocation t(8; 21) that leads to the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion, somatic mutations of RUNX1 have been discovered.
The American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual 8th edition introduced a breast cancer (BC) Prognostic Stage (PS) that combines tumour grade, oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) receptor status with Anatomic TNM Stage (AS). In a further modification, patients with early BC and an Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score (RS) < 11 are assigned to PS 1A irrespective of grade and size up to 5 cm. This study profiles the impact of these changes on staging in pa...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is heterogeneous in terms of the risk of progression to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To treat DCIS appropriately for its progression risk, we classified individual DCIS by its profile of genomic changes into 2 groups and correlated them with clinicopathological progression factors.
Papillary tumours of the breast are diagnostically challenging lesions and represent a wide spectrum of diseases from papilloma to invasive papillary carcinoma. A rare subtype of breast papillary tumour resembling the tall cell variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma (BTRTPC) has been described. The nomenclature of this entity, its relationship to other papillary tumours, and its nature, whether in situ or invasive, remain unclear.
Malignant cells exhibit significant resistance to FAS-mediated cell death, through different processes, including FAS mutations, soluble FAS expression, or FAS transcriptional dysregulation by P53, eventually escaping from immune surveillance. Since thyroid carcinomas were shown to be resistant to FAS-mediated apoptosis, we investigated the above mechanisms in thyroid carcinoma samples.
Forkhead transcription factor, O subgroup, member 1 (FOXO1) is a regulatory protein that plays an essential role in cellular homeostasis. A biological function as a tumor suppressor has been proposed. Here, we examined FOXO1 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursor lesions.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a challenging group of diseases for clinicians and researchers, as both disease course and pathobiology are highly heterogeneous. In (suspected) MDS patients, multi-parameter flow cytometry can aid in establishing diagnosis, risk stratification and choice of therapy. This review addresses the developments and future directions of multi-parameter flow cytometry scores in MDS. Additionally, we propose an integrated diagnostic algorithm for suspected MDS.
Congenital pouch colon (CPC), a high type of anorectal malformation, is a sporadic disease and several environmental factors are known to be involved in its pathology. To the best of our knowledge, no familial incidence of CPC has been reported anywhere in the literature so far.
This study describes and discusses a rare case of metastatic carcinoma that affected the skeleton of an adult male recovered in the necropolis of Casal Bertone in Rome (Italy). The necropolis, which dates back to the Imperial Age (1st to 2nd century AD), is located near some residential structures and a large place identified as a fullery (fullonica).
This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of CTNNB1 (β-catenin) mutations in cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma with desmoid-type fibromatosis (PTC-DTF) expressing aberrant nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for β-catenin.
Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a rare form of upper-lobe-dominant progressive pulmonary fibrosis characterized histologically by visceral pleural thickening with collagenous fibrosis, subpleural elastosis, and intra-alveolar collagenous fibrosis. It was first described 25 years ago by Amitani et al. This report firstly describes a new variant or rare phenotype of PPFE with airway involvement, minimal pleuroparenchymal connections, and non-necrotizing granulomas.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-related proteins and their implication in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of proliferation potential-related protein (PP-RP) in influencing the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells.
Ancient Egyptian human remains have been of interest in the fields of both medical and Egyptological research for decades. However, canopic jar holders for internal organs (liver, lungs, stomach, intestines) of Egyptian mummies appear to be but a very occasional source of data for such investigations. The few medical approaches focusing on the content of these jars are summarized and listed according to pathogens and diseases to give a structured overview of this field of study. An extensive search of the l...