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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 4.5 million dog bites occur each year in the United States, and more than half of these cases affect children. An estimated 1 in 6 dog bites, representing more than 800,000 bite victims each year, requires some form of medical attention. Historically, pediatric trauma patients who suffer devastating injuries and cardiopulmonary collapse requiring heroic salvage efforts have poor outcomes. We present the first case of extracorporeal m...
The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of alcohol and other substance use among teenagers in generalized samples.
While hospital-hospital transfers of pediatric patients are often necessary, some pediatric transfers are potentially avoidable. Pediatric potentially avoidable transfers (PATs) represent a process with high costs and safety risks but few, if any, benefits. To better understand this issue, we described pediatric interfacility transfers with early discharges.
Vascular access in critically ill pediatric patients can be challenging with delays potentially leading to worse outcomes. Intraosseous (IO) access has a low rate of complications and can be utilized to administer lifesaving medications. Combat medics are trained to treat adults but may also be required to treat children in the deployed setting. Vascular access in children can be challenging, especially in a hypovolemic state. There are limited data on prehospital lifesaving interventions in children in the...
Septo-optic dysplasia is a rare congenital heterogeneous malformation comprising at least 2 components of the triad: optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary hormone abnormalities, and midline brain defects. We report a 2-month-old girl who presented with hypernatremia, constipation, and increased sleepiness with mother's recent appreciation of abnormal eye movements. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this patient who avoided significant morbidity by prompt diagnosis based initially on clinical suspicion....
We describe 3 infants with skull fractures that involved more than 1 skull bone. On further evaluation, 2 of the 3 infants had additional fractures at other sites of the body and the third infant had concerning bruising of the face. Although an accidental mechanism of injury was initially given as the history in each case, law enforcement investigations led all 3 fathers to confess to crushing their infants' skulls out of frustration. These crushes were caused by their arms or hands. Bilateral skull fractur...
Few practicing emergency physicians will avoid life-changing stressors such as a medical error, personal illness, malpractice litigation, or death of a patient. Many will be unprepared for the toll they will take on their lives. Some may ultimately experience burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Medical education, continuing education, and maintenance of certification programs do not teach physicians to recognize helplessness, moral distress, or maladaptive coping mechanisms in th...
The majority of pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) present to community emergency departments (CEDs) that are less prepared to care for acutely ill children owing to low pediatric volume and limited pediatric resources and guidelines. This has impacted the quality of care provided to pediatric patients in CEDs. We hypothesized that a simulation-based collaborative program would improve the quality of the care provided to simulated pediatric DKA patients presenting to CEDs.
Undifferentiated abdominal pain is a common pediatric presentation to the emergency department (ED).
Hemophilia A is characterized by deficiency of factor VIII. We present a unique, illustrative case of an infant with a short history of neck pain and irritability without neurological deficits who was found to have a spinal epidural hematoma. The subsequent investigation for the etiology, including workup for nonaccidental trauma, led to a diagnosis of severe hemophilia A.
Of the multitude of neurologic injuries related to roller-coaster rides, a majority of them are reported about adults. In this case, we present a patient who presented to the pediatric emergency department with new-onset seizure and hemiplegia 2 days after a roller-coaster ride. She was ultimately diagnosed with a subdural hematoma. The acceleration and G forces of roller coasters are hypothesized to cause enough stress and shearing forces that are thought to directly cause subdural hemorrhage.Advances in r...
To evaluate the utility of the Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examination for diagnosis of intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in children presenting with blunt abdominal trauma.
In this report, we describe a 13-year-old with opisthotonos as the presenting symptom of Chiari I malformation. This presentation is rare and has previously been reported only in infants. We describe the physical and radiologic findings, literature regarding Chiari malformation, and differential diagnosis of opisthotonos in this patient.
Substance use and abuse have been documented as both a risk factor in and consequence of involvement in domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). Domestic minor sex trafficking is defined as the commercial sexual exploitation of children in exchange for money, food, shelter, or any other valued entity. The current investigation sought to describe substance use in a cohort of DMST patients who present for medical evaluation. Findings revealed that 68 patients referred for DMST involvement reported high rates of...
Pediatric foreign body (FB) injuries to the nasal, aural, and/or oral cavities are well documented. Description of austere foreign body (AFB) injuries involving the rectum, vagina, or penis eludes the current pediatric literature. Austere FBs can be difficult to identify and have the potential to cause serious consequences. We aim to characterize AFB injuries by children and adolescents presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States.
Point-of-care ultrasound has become an important adjunct for diagnostic assessment in pediatric emergency medicine. In this case series, we demonstrate how ocular point-of-care ultrasound is used to correctly diagnose ocular pathologies and to expedite care.
Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood is a form of pure red cell aplasia that is self-limited and occurs in children 4 years old and younger. It is characterized by an absence or a significantly reduced quantity of erythroblasts in the bone marrow without underlying congenital red blood cell abnormalities. Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood should be considered in previously healthy children who present with normocytic anemia and lack of reticulocytosis without evidence of blood loss, hemolysis, ...
We present an unusual case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with the sudden presence of left neck mass and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, whose subsequent imaging demonstrated a previously undiagnosed anterior mediastinal mass (AMM) extending into the left neck. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with a desmoid tumor, which is a rare cause of AMM in children. Desmoid tumors are locally aggressive, often invading and enveloping surrounding tissues, but overall slow growing. The sudden growth of the nec...
Retroclival epidural hematomas are particularly rare conditions that are frequently the result of high-energy, hyperflexion-hyperextension injuries in pediatric patients. We present the case of a 7-year-old previously healthy girl with traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma after a fall from a swing. She presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 with severe neck pain and limitation of cervical movements in all directions. Radiological examination revealed retroclival epidural hematoma, and the patien...
The objective of this study was to describe regional and temporal trends in pediatric firearm-related emergency department (ED) visits and investigate association with regional firearm legislation.
Extracranial carotid aneurysms in children are extremely rare but carry a high mortality and morbidity. For pediatric patients, they are often complications of pharyngeal infections and surgical trauma but can also arise from congenital and inflammatory diseases. They have a wide range of presentation from an asymptomatic mass to a rapidly fatal hemorrhage.