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Resistivity index (RI) of the pericallosal artery as is commonly measured during head ultrasound (US) examination in neonates. Some studies have shown that RI measured with gentle compression of the fontanelle provides additional information in cases of neonatal brain anomalies.
In this article, the fourth author's name is misspelled. The correct spelling, as shown above, should be "Nadia F. Mahmood."
The significance of intrarenal reflux as a risk factor for renal scarring and hypertension has been discussed. Fluoroscopic detection of intrarenal reflux depends on the equipment, the training of the radiologists and the timing of spot film acquisition.
This retrospective review of 33 children's dynamic 4-dimensional (4-D) computed tomography (CT) images of the airways, performed using volume scanning on a 320-detector array without anaesthesia (free-breathing) and 1.4-s continuous scanning, was undertaken to report technique, pitfalls, quality, radiation doses and findings. Tracheobronchomalacia (airway diameter collapse >28%) was recorded. Age-matched routine chest CT scans and bronchograms acted as benchmarks for comparing effective dose. Pitfalls inclu...
The presence of a hernia sac in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been reported to be associated with higher lung volumes and better postnatal outcomes.
A wide range of congenital or acquired conditions, some pretty rare, may affect the vulva and vagina in children. Swelling, visible or palpable masses and abnormal discharges are common symptoms of conditions affecting the vulva and/or the lower genital tract. The majority of these diseases are benign. Ultrasonography is pivotal to elucidate the anatomical origin of these conditions and make the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging can be relevant to improve diagnostic confidence and, if needed, to plan mo...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is one of the most common congenital viral infections in the world. Brain magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in evaluating brain involvement and establishing prognosis; several characteristic features have been described. We present a description of cerebellar cysts in a neonate with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cytomegalovirus congenital infection, and discuss the differential diagnosis and potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
Percutaneous renal biopsy is a commonly performed procedure that guides decision-making for children with renal disease.
Rwanda is a country of 12 million people with 41% of its population under the age of 14 years. Despite major improvements in health care since the 1994 genocide, pediatric neuroimaging in Rwanda remains challenging. Prenatal and advanced imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not widespread. As a result, many children with neurological diseases present unexpectedly as newborns or are in advanced stages of disease at diagnosis. The goal of this essay is to describe some unique fea...
Treatment pathways for isolated distal radius fractures in children are becoming more tailored to specific fracture types and include different management plans for stable buckle fractures versus potentially unstable distal radius fractures.
The term cloacal malformation is commonly used to describe the classic cloacal malformation where there is a single common urogenital and intestinal channel located at the expected site of the urethra. There is, however, a spectrum of cloacal abnormalities that differ from this classic type and are less well discussed in the radiologic and surgical literature. The aim of this pictorial essay is to familiarize radiologists with the anatomy, appropriate terminology and key prenatal imaging findings that diffe...
Semiautomatic three-dimensional (3-D) threshold-based cardiac computed tomography (CT) quantification has not been attempted for left ventricular mass.
Arterial spin labeling is a noninvasive, non-gadolinium-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to assess cerebral blood flow. It provides insight into both tissue metabolic activity and vascular supply. Because of its non-sensitivity toward blood-brain barrier leakage, arterial spin labeling is also more accurate in cerebral blood flow quantification than gadolinium-dependent methods. The aim of this pictorial essay is to promote the application of arterial spin labeling in pediatric neuroradi...
General anesthesia (GA) or sedation has been used to obtain good-quality motion-free breath-hold chest CT scans in young children; however pulmonary atelectasis is a common and problematic accompaniment that can confound diagnostic utility. Dual-source multidetector CT permits ultrafast high-pitch sub-second examinations, minimizing motion artifact and potentially eliminating the need for a breath-hold.
Many infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show brain abnormality on postnatal brain MRI related to severity of CDH, degree of lung hypoplasia, intrathoracic liver, right diaphragmatic hernia and large diaphragmatic defect. It is not known whether these factors affect brain growth in utero in CDH.
Pancreatic heterotopia is a rare congenital anomaly more commonly incidentally found in adults. While intra-abdominal cysts found on prenatal imaging are not uncommon, we examine a case of pancreatic heterotopia presenting in an abdominopelvic cyst on prenatal imaging. At birth, the neonate was found to have hypoglycemia unresponsive to treatment that resolved after cyst resection. We will review the etiology, imaging findings and clinical course of this anomaly, which should be considered in the differenti...
Children presenting to the emergency department with acute psychosis or hallucinations sometimes undergo a head CT to evaluate for a causative lesion. The diagnostic yield of head CT in this scenario has not been reported.
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement has been extensively studied in adults. The experience with TIPS placement in pediatric patients, however, is limited.
Fibular hemimelia is the most common congenital long-bone deficiency. It is usually unilateral and results in a limb-length discrepancy. The literature generally subscribes to the concept of constant inhibition, a process by which limb-length ratios between the shorter and longer extremity remain constant throughout growth, but scientific data supporting this concept are sparse. Additionally, recent literature suggests that these children have abnormal skeletal maturation.
Focal liver lesions are common in children and adults after Fontan procedures.
Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma are rare liver tumors in which specific features on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) have been reported but are little known in children.
Two-dimensional (2-D) shear wave elastography is a new sonographic elastography method for noninvasive measurement of liver stiffness.