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The addition of budesonide (Bud) 0.25 mg/kg to surfactant decreased the lung and systemic responses to mechanical ventilation in preterm sheep and the rates and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that lower budesonide concentrations in surfactant will decrease injury while decreasing systemic corticosteroid exposure.
To assess the growth outcomes at 18 months corrected age in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants compared to standardized norms, and in VLBW infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or fetal growth restriction (FGR).
Hyperoxia (HO) causes kidney injury in preterm infants; however, whether these effects are modifiable is unknown. We hypothesized that administration of exogenous soluble Klotho, a kidney-derived antioxidant, would attenuate HO-induced kidney injury during postnatal nephrogenesis in rats.
Wu and colleagues analyzed the placental pathology from a subset of the neonates in the NEATO trial who had reports available and correlated the placental pathology findings with outcomes. This study highlights the importance of placental pathology, and its potential to bring precision medicine to critically-ill neonates. Placental pathology will likely aid stratification of neonates for clinical trials and accelerate progress for neurorepair.
Retinal gene expression pattern is severely altered after exposition to hyperoxia in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a common model of retinopathy of prematurity. Gene ontology and signaling pathway analyses may add new insights into a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease.
Exaggerated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and intestinal dysbiosis are key contributors to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) decreases NEC in preterm infants, but underlying mechanisms of protection remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that LGG alleviates dysbiosis and upregulates TLR inhibitors to protect against TLR-mediated gut injury.
Recent studies have shown a diverse microbiome in the first stool after birth. The clinical significance of the microbiome of the first stool is not known. Infantile colic has earlier been associated with the composition of the intestinal microbiome.
We examined how specific cognitive behavioral impairments impacted quality of life (QoL) within a large multicenter cohort of 7-10 year olds surviving extremely preterm (EPT) without major neurodevelopmental disability.
Obesity has been associated with earlier thelarche, whereas other predictors for it remain unclear.
Screen-based media use is prevalent in children and is associated with health risks. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations involve access to screens, frequency, content, and co-viewing. The aim of this study was to test the ScreenQ, a composite measure of screen-based media use.
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency (MCADD) is the most frequent fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defect in humans. MCAD-deficient fibroblasts are more resistant to oxidative stress-induced cell death than other FAO defects and healthy controls.
Cognitive appraisal of stress can influence performance. Increased awareness could facilitate titration to optimal stress levels. This study's primary aim was to investigate whether physiologic variables change with increasingly stressful simulations. Secondary aims include effect of stress on procedural competency and whether individuals recognize their experienced stress.
Chronic undernutrition leads to growth hormone resistance and poor growth in children, which has been shown to be modulated by microbiota. We studied whether Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (Lf ), isolated from mother's breast milk, could promote juvenile growth through the modulation of lipid absorption in a model of starvation.
Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young children, with over a million deaths per year worldwide arising from neonatal complications (NCs). NCs are moderately heritable although the genetic causes are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the impact of accumulated genetic variation (burden) on NCs in non-Hispanic White (NHW) and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) preterm infants.
Maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the major causes of maternal mortality. However, the association between HDP and offspring's neurodevelopment remains unclear.
It is well established that reduced sleep has detrimental effects on school-aged children's functioning, but the prevalence and stability of objectively measured insufficient sleep throughout childhood is unknown.
Initial trials of lung-targeted budesonide (0.25 mg/kg) in surfactant to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants have shown benefit; however, the optimal safe dose is unknown.
Measuring early socioeconomic inequalities in health provides evidence to understand the patterns of disease. Thus, our aim was to determine which children's health outcomes are patterned by socioeconomics and to what extent the magnitude/direction of the differences vary by socioeconomic measure and outcome.
To test the hypothesis that dopamine is associated with impaired cerebral autoregulation (ICA) in a dose-dependent fashion.