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Rice planthoppers are the most widespread and destructive pest of rice. The planthopper control depends greatly on the understanding of molecular players involved in resistance to planthopper. This paper summarizes the recent progress in the understanding of some molecular players involved in resistance to planthopper and the mechanisms involved. Recent researches showed that host-plant resistance is the most promising sustainable approach for controlling planthoppers. Planthoppers resistant varieties with ...
Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is a pest of cotton, vegetables, ornamentals, and medicinal plants. In many parts of the world P. solenopsis has been managed by integration of cultural, mechanical, biological and insecticides, but in Pakistan insecticide sprays has resulted the selection of resistant individuals to some insecticides. In this study indoxacarb resistance was investigated by selecting a P. solenopsis population under laboratory conditions for many generations. The cross-resistance poten...
Empoasca onukii, the tea green leafhopper, is a key pest of tea, whose control often requires the extensive use of insecticides. As a predator of the tea green leafhopper, the mite, Anystis baccarum, is a potential biological control agent worldwide, though little is known about how intercropping cover crops can impact its suppressing effect on E. onukii. Therefore, we conducted a field experiment to investigate how the relationship of the abundance of the predatory mite and its leafhopper prey is influence...
Poly(&ip.eop;-caprolactone) nanocapsules (NC+ATZ) are an efficient carrier system for atrazine and were developed as an alternative to reduce the harmful environmental effects of this herbicide. Here, we analyzed the pre-emergence herbicidal activity of NC+ATZ against Bidens pilosa and evaluated its residual effect on soybean plants after different periods of soil treatment with the formulations.
Fluralaner, a novel pesticide that targets the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit of resistant to dieldrin (RDL), exhibits strong potential to be an insecticide to control agricultural insect pests. However, the risk and action of fluralaner to economic insects, e.g., honeybee Apis mellifera Linnaeus, remains unclear.
Complex III inhibitors are key compounds in the control of Plasmopara viticola. They are prone to the development of resistance, as demonstrated by the emergence of resistance to QoIs. By using a combination of bioassays and molecular methods, we monitored sensitivity to amisulbrom and ametoctradin in P. viticola populations in French vineyards from 2012 to 2017.
In recent years, carboxamide fungicides, targeting succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), possessed highly efficient and broad spectrum fungicidal activity. From the SAR results of these commercial fungicides, the carboxamide group was a key active group. This provides useful information for the discovery of new pyrazole carboxamide derivatives with fungicidal activity.
Malaria is the most important vector borne disease in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent reports indicate that the levels of malaria associated mortality and morbidity in SSA have remained the same. Malaria vectors have modified their feeding behavior in response to the selective pressure from indoor-based interventions, and there is emerging malaria parasite resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies. These challenges have created an altered malaria landscape, especially within local scales in som...
Given the weed resistance to various herbicides with different mechanisms of action, the search for new compounds that are more effective and exhibit low levels of impact to other species in the nature has been imperative in the field of the agriculture. For this purpose, sixteen phthalides, and furan-2(5H)-one were synthetized and evaluated for their effectiveness as herbicides in seeds of Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), and Allium cepa (onion). Furthermore, a preliminary in silico s...
Crops are negatively affected by abiotic and biotic stresses, however plant-microbe cooperation allows prompt buffering of these environmental changes. Microorganisms exhibit an extensive metabolic capability to assist plants in reducing these burdens. Interestingly, beneficial microbes may also trigger, at the host side, a sequence of events from signal perception to metabolic responses leading to stress tolerance or protection against biotic threats. Although plants are well known for their vast chemical ...
Sitona weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are a species complex of pests of many leguminous crops worldwide, causing damage to young plants as adults and to rootlets as larvae, resulting in significant yield losses. Timely detection of migrating adult weevils is needed to determine when deployment of control measures becomes necessary. With the aim of developing plant volatile-based lures for Sitona spp. detection, we investigated the responses of S. humeralis to host plant related aromatic compounds.
Quantification of spray deposition on target crop is of vital importance to optimize the application techniques of pesticide. For traditional determination of spray deposition, a large amount of organic solvent is inevitably used to extract pesticides from the target crops. In the present work, water-soluble food dye of Allura Red was developed as a tracer to determine the spray deposition of pesticide on target crop of rice.
Insecticide application is essential to control navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) in California almonds (Prunus dulcis), but coverage is challenging. Laboratory and field trials were conducted from 2014-2017 to quantify insecticide deposition and duration of control.
Phauda flammans Walker is a notorious defoliating pest of Ficus spp. in Southeast Asian. Sex pheromones have been identified as an effective method of biological control. However, little is known about the sex pheromone communication of P. flammans due to a lack of knowledge regarding the diel rhythms of sexual behavior and a lack of field tests using sex pheromone attractants.
Thiamethoxam (TMX) represents the second-generation of neonicotinoids that has been widely applied in agricultural activities, while how TMX alters the behavior of Apis cerana, an important native honey bee species in China, is not clear. We carried out three independent experiments to study the impact of acute oral treatment of 20 μl TMX at concentrations of 2.4 ppb (0.048 ng/bee) and 10 ppb (0.2 ng/bee) on the homing, flight, learning acquisition and short-term retention ability of A. cerana. The homing ...
Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to complex and changing environments. One important feature of plant adaption is production of specialised metabolites. Terpenes are the largest class of specialised metabolites with over 80,000 structures reported so far, and they have important ecological functions in plant adaptation. Here, we review the current knowledge on plant terpenes that mediate below-ground interactions between plants and other organisms including microbes...
Sulfoxaflor has been considered as a new tool for Nilaparvata lugens control in the field. In this study, a laboratory-selected resistant strain and a susceptible strain were used to evaluate the inheritance and fitness costs of sulfoxaflor resistance in N. lugens.
Genomes are vital to the study of genomics, population genetics, and evolution of species. To date, only one genome (Echinochloa crus-galli) for C4 annual weedy grass species has been sequenced. Research was conducted to develop a draft genome of goosegrass (Eleusine indica; 2n = 2x = 18), one of the most common and troublesome weeds in the world.
Compulsory integrated pest management poses a number of challenges and debatable issues. Some of them are discussed in reference to the European Union requirements set in Annex III of Directive 128/2009. Requirements on the use of plant protection products bring problems with dose reduction in the light of resistance prevention strategy, the lack of threshold levels, the necessity of chemical treatments and the limited availability of effective products of biological origin. Making use of preventive measure...
Allelopathy is the biological phenomenon of chemical interaction between living organisms in the ecosystem, and it must be taken into account to address pest and weed problems in future sustainable agriculture. Allelopathy is a multidisciplinary science, but in some cases, chemistry aspects are overlooked, despite the need for a deep knowledge of chemical structural characteristics of allelochemicals to facilitate the design of new herbicides. This review is focused on the most important advances in allelop...
Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus is a major pest of tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima, in China. Damage caused by E. scrobiculatus has increased as beetle populations have expanded. We developed a trunk trap net (TTN) and two modified TTNs, i.e., TTN with a wire ring (TTN-WR) and TTN with a spongy cushion (TTN-SC), and evaluated their ability to capture E. scrobiculatus in plantations of A. altissima.
Increased expression or point mutations of carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) have been involved in many cases of insecticides and acaricides resistance. However, it is only rarely documented that down-regulation of CCE genes are associated with resistance, although many insecticides and acaricides need hydrolytic activation in vivo. Previously, expression analysis of a laboratory selected cyflumetofen resistant strain of Tetranychus cinnabarinus indicated that resistance was associated with increased expressi...
Botanical compounds from plant species are known to have pesticidal activity and have been used in integrated pest management programs. The varied spectrum of pesticidal action of these compounds can also avoid selection of resistance in pest populations. In this study, mixtures of the botanical compounds geraniol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were encapsulated in zein nanoparticles to improve their stability and efficiency. Biological effects of the nano-scale formulations of the botanical compounds were eva...
Spotted wing Drosophila is an invasive pest of fruit crops in most production regions globally, and insecticides are commonly used for its control. The biology of this pest combined with repeated pesticide exposure increases the risk of resistance to insecticides. We tested malathion, methomyl, spinetoram, spinosad, and zeta-cypermethrin against multiple colonies from each state using a contact bioassay method to determine diagnostic doses for assessment of insecticide susceptibility in this species. These ...
Nanoparticles can be used for effective pest management as a combined formulation of metal and some other material that has proven efficacy against a given pest. This study reports the synthesis, characterization and efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea based zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles against sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius).