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PubMed Journal Database | Pharmacological research RSS

13:35 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 480 from Pharmacological research

Properties of FDA-approved small molecule protein kinase inhibitors.

Because mutations, overexpression, and dysregulation of protein kinases play essential roles in the pathogenesis of many illnesses, this enzyme family has become one of the most important drug targets in the past 20 years. The US FDA has approved 48 small molecule protein kinase inhibitors, nearly all of which are orally effective with the exceptions of netarsudil (which is given as an eye drop) and temsirolimus (which is given intravenously). Of the 48 approved drugs, the majority (25) target receptor prot...

Mechanisms of statin-associated skeletal muscle-associated symptoms.

Statins lower the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular events by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Although the safety of statins is documented, many patients ingesting statins may suffer from skeletal muscle-associated symptoms (SAMS). Importantly, SAMS are a common reason for stopping the treatment with statins. Statin-associated muscular symptoms include fatigue, weakness and pain, possibly accompanied by elevated serum creatine kinase activity. The mos...

Novel function of VEGF-B as an antioxidant and therapeutic implications.

Oxidative stress, due to insufficiency of antioxidants or over-production of oxidants, can lead to severe cell and tissue damage. Oxidative stress occurs constantly and has been shown to be involved in innumerable diseases, such as degenerative, cardiovascular, neurological, and metabolic disorders, cancer, and aging, thus highlighting the vital need of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) was discovered a long time ago, and is abundantly expressed in most types of c...

Anti-arrhythmic therapy in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) are the foundation of therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. While ICDs prevent SCD, they do not prevent the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias which are usually symptomatic. Though catheter ablation has been successful in substrate modification of ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is much less evidence to support its use in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) are an essential adju...

Pharmacological targeting of age-related changes in skeletal muscle tissue.

Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, increases the risk of developing chronic diseases in older individuals and is a strong predictor of disability and death. Because of the ongoing demographic transition, age-related muscle weakness is responsible for an alarming and increasing contribution to health care costs in Western countries. Exercise-based interventions are most successful in preventing the decline in skeletal muscle mass and in preserving or ameliorating functiona...

Biased signaling agonist of Dopamine D3 receptor induces receptor internalization independent of β-Arrestin recruitment.

Agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a significant step in receptor kinetics and is known to be involved in receptor down-regulation. However, the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) has been an exception wherein agonist induces D3Rs to undergo desensitization followed by pharmacological sequestration - which is defined as the sequestration of cell surface receptors into a more hydrophobic fraction within the plasma membrane without undergoing the process of receptor internalizat...

SAFETY OF RED YEAST RICE SUPPLEMENTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS.

Recently, concerns regarding the safety of red yeast rice (RYR) have been raised after the publication of some case reports claiming toxicity. Since the previous meta-analyses on the effects of RYR were mainly focused on its efficacy to improve lipid profile and other cardiovascular parameters, we carried out a meta-analysis on safety data derived from the available randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Primary outcomes were musculoskeletal disorders (MuD). Secondary outcomes were non-musculoskeleta...

Harnessing the immune system to fight cancer with Toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor agonists.

Cancer immunotherapy has come of age with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this article we review how agonists for receptors of the innate immune system, the Toll-like receptors and the RIG-I-like receptors, impact anticancer immune responses. Treatment with these agonists enhances the activity of anticancer effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, and at the same time blocks the activity of immunosuppressive cell types such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor c...

Role of endocannabinoid system in dopamine signalling within the reward circuits affected by chronic pain.

The association between chronic pain, depression and anxiety has gained particular attention due to high rates of comorbidity. Recent data demonstrated that the mesolimbic reward circuitry is involved in the pathology of chronic pain. Interestingly, the mesolimbic reward circuit participates both in pain perception and in pain relief. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a highly relevant player involved in both pain perception and reward processing. Targeting ECS could become a novel treatment s...

Targeting the crosstalks of Wnt pathway with Hedgehog and Notch for cancer therapy.

Wnt pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway determining patterning of animal embryos, cell fate, cell polarity, and a substantial role in the origin and maintenance of stem cells. It has been found to crosstalk with two other major developmental pathways, Hedgehog and Notch, in many embryological development cascades and in maintaining stemness of stem cells Research has shown that all the three pathways are potent in inducing tumorigenesis, driving tumor progression and aiding epithelial t...

Autophagy Inhibition Plays a Protective Role against 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced Loss of Serotonin Transporters and Depressive-like Behaviors in Rats.

The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug, which ultimately leads to serotonergic (5-HT) neurotoxicity and psychiatric disorders. Previous in vitro studies have consistently demonstrated that MDMA provokes autophagic activation, as well as damage of 5-HT axons and nerve fibers. So far, whether autophagy, a well-conserved cellular process that is critical for cell fate, also participates in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in vivo remains elusive. Here, we first examined time-cour...

Interactions between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic liver disease: the role of microbiota-derived metabolites.

Gut microbiota, a new frontier to understand traditional Chinese medicines.

As an important component of complementary and alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are gaining more and more attentions around the world because of the powerful therapeutic effects and less side effects. However, there are still some doubts about TCM because of the questionable TCM theories and unclear biological active compounds. In recent years, gut microbiota has emerged as an important frontier to understand the development and progress of diseases. Together with this trend, an in...

Improvement of fiber connectivity and functional recovery after stroke by montelukast, an available and safe anti-asthmatic drug.

Stroke is one of the main causes of death, neurological dysfunctions or disability in elderly. Neuroprotective drugs have been proposed to improve long-term recovery after stroke, but failed to reach clinical effectiveness. Hence, recent studies suggested that restorative therapies should combine neuroprotection and remyelination. Montelukast, an anti-asthmatic drug, was shown to exert neuroprotection in animal models of CNS injuries, but its ability to affect oligodendrocytes, restoring fiber connectivity,...

NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibition with MCC950 Improves Diabetes-Mediated Cognitive Impairment and Vasoneuronal Remodeling After Ischemia.

Diabetes increases the risk and worsens the progression of cognitive impairment via the greater occurrence of small vessel disease and stroke. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It is now accepted that cardiovascular health is critical for brain health and any neurorestorative approaches to prevent/delay cognitive deficits should target the conceptual neurovascular unit (NVU) rather than neurons alone. We have recently shown that there is augmented hippocampal NVU remodeling after a re...

Striatal Morphological and Functional Alterations Induced by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an insidious yet preventable cause of developmental disability. The prenatal stage is a critical period for brain development with the concurrence of high vulnerability to the acute and prolonged effects of PAE. There is substantial evidence from both human observations and laboratory experiments that PAE is a common risk factor that predisposes to an array of postnatal mental disorders, including emotional, cognitive, and motor deficits. Although it is well accepted that ...

A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model precisely identifies effective and ineffective therapies for recurrent leiomyosarcoma.

Leiomyosarcoma is a rare and recalcitrant disease. Doxorubicin (DOX) is usually considered first-line treatment for this disease, but frequently is ineffective. In order to individualize therapy for this and other cancers, we have developed the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. In the present study, we implanted a recurrent leiomyosarcoma from a resected tumor from the patient's thigh into the femoral muscle of nude mice. The following drugs were tested on the leiomyosarcoma PDOX mode...

Inhibition of class I HDACs attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis in a murine model.

Renal interstitial fibrosis is the most common of all the forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Research has shown that histone deacetylases (HDACs) participate in the process leading to renal fibrosis. However, the effects of class I HDAC inhibitors on the mechanisms of onset and progression of renal interstitial fibrosis are still unclear. Here, we present the effects and mechanisms of action of FK228 (a selective inhibitor of class I HDACs) in the murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) an...

Sinomenine inhibits osteolysis in breast cancer by reducing IL-8/CXCR1 and c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling.

Sinomenine (SIN) is an anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic alkaloid derived from Sinomenium acutum, and the product Zhengqing Fengtongning produced from SIN has been marketed in China for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, we recently found that SIN could significantly ameliorate bone destruction induced by breast cancer cells in mice. Micro-CT examination showed that bone loss of the trabecular bones in tumor-bearing mice was markedly decreased by i.p. treatment of SIN at 150 mg/kg body w...

A TCM formula comprising Sophorae Flos and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos alters compositions of immune cells and molecules of the STAT3 pathway in melanoma microenvironment.

A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula (SL) comprising Sophorae Flos and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was used for treating melanoma in ancient China. We have previously shown that an ethanolic extract of SL (SLE) possesses anti-melanoma effects and suppresses STAT3 signaling in vitro and in vivo. STAT3 has been linked to the development of melanoma immunosuppressive microenvironment. In this work, we investigated whether SLE inhibits melanoma growth by reprogramming the tumor microenvironment in mouse an...

Using herbal medicine to target the "microbiota-metabolism-immunity" axis as possible therapy for cardiovascular disease.

The gut microbiota harvests nutrients from the host while making possible the digestion of complex nutrients and regulating and balancing the immune and metabolic functions. The microbiota itself, and the dysbiosis of the gut flora, are correlated to the onset and progress of diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Herbal medicine (HM) plays a role in modulating gut microbiota and is widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated conditions, such as diabetes, ...

The acyl-glucuronide metabolite of ibuprofen has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects via the TRPA1 channel.

Ibuprofen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, expressed primarily in nociceptors, mediates the action of proalgesic and inflammatory agents. Ibuprofen metabolism yields the reactive compound, ibuprofen-acyl glucuronide, which, like other TRPA1 ligands, covalently interacts with macromolecules. To explore whether ibuprofen-acyl glucuronide contributes to the ibuprofen ana...

The effect of probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes has been shown. Several current trials are investigating the effect of probiotics and prebiotics, which are widely used to modulate intestinal microbiota, on inflammatory factors and biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetic patients; however, their findings are controversial. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and ...

Dihydrotanshinone exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo through blocking TLR4 dimerization.

Dihydrotanshinone (DHT), one of the major ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), displays many bioactivities. However, the activity and underlying mechanism of DHT in anti-inflammation have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of action of DHT both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that DHT significantly decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β...

Targeting ERK1/2 protein-serine/threonine kinases in human cancers.

ERK1 and ERK2 are key protein kinases that contribute to the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK MAP kinase signalling module. This pathway participates in the control of numerous processes including apoptosis, cell proliferation, the immune response, nervous system function, and RNA synthesis and processing. MEK1/2 activate human ERK1/2 by first catalyzing the phosphorylation of Y204/187 and then T202/185, both residues of which occur within the activation segment. The phosphorylation of both residues is required for enzyme a...


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