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PubMed Journal Database | Plant disease RSS

05:00 EDT 20th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 372 from Plant disease

QTLs for Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in a Multiparent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Maize Population.

Alternative approaches to linkage and association mapping using inbred panels may allow further insights into loci involved in resistance to Fusarium ear rot and lead to the discovery of suitable markers for breeding programs. Here, the suitability of a maize multiparent advanced-generation intercross population for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with Fusarium ear rot resistance was evaluated and found to be valuable in uncovering genomic regions containing resistance-associated loci in...

Genetic Connectivity Between Papaya Ringspot Virus Genomes from Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia, and New Recombination Insights.

Isolates of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were obtained from plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) or cucumber (Cucumis sativus) showing mosaic symptoms growing at Zage in Goroka District in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) or Bagl in the Mount Hagen District, Western Highlands Province. The samples were sent to Australia on FTA cards where they were subjected to High Throughput Sequencing (HTS). When the coding regions of the six new PRSV genomic sequences obtained via HTS were compared ...

"Turning a Blind Eye to Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane in Australia" May Be Putting It Too Strongly Without A Lot More Evidence.

A recent Feature article, "Turning a Blind Eye to Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane in Australia" by Dr. Anthony J. Young, claims "The potential RSD plays a significant, industry-wide role in reduced yields and crop deterioration in Australia has been widely overlooked." As a result, "the industry has exhibited what amounts to an ideological attitude, repeatedly claiming the disease is economically managed." These statements are the basis for the provocative title of the article. Dr. Young presents very ...

A Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Replication Curve Model to Evaluate Maize Rough Dwarf Disease Resistance.

Resistance to maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), a major cause of crop losses, depends on external conditions such as the virus transmission period and the rate of viruliferous small brown planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus. The precise identification of MRDD contributes to the utilization of resistant germplasm and the cloning of resistant genes. In this study, eight maize varieties were artificially inoculated in a greenhouse with viruliferous planthoppers. The viral titers in maize seedlings were detect...

Fungi Associated with and Influence of Moisture on Development of Kernel Mold of Hazelnut.

Kernel mold on hazelnuts is defined by the United States Department of Agriculture, U.S.A., as any visible fungal growth either on the outside or inside of the kernel. Only one yeast and one filamentous fungus have been associated with kernel mold of hazelnut in Oregon. In this report, fungi were isolated from kernels with mold and identified using morphological and molecular characters. Penicillium spp. were isolated most often from kernels with mold, but species of Aspergillus and Cladosporium and Diaport...

QTL Mapping Identifies Novel Source of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 in Citrullus amarus.

Fusarium wilt race 1, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.: Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon), is a major disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the United States and throughout the world. Although Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance has been incorporated into several watermelon cultivars, identification of additional genetic sources of resistance is crucial if a durable and sustainable level of resistance is to be continued over the years. We conducted a...

Effect of Soil Physical Conditions on Emission of Allyl Isothiocyanate and Subsequent Microbial Inhibition in Response to Brassicaceae Seed Meal Amendment.

Generation of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in soil treated with residues of specific Brassicaceae species yields direct and indirect suppression of soilborne plant pathogens. Soil physical conditions demonstrably affected the quantity of AITC generated in response to soil incorporation of a Brassica juncea/Sinapis alba seed meal (SM) formulation. The concentration of AITC generated in SM-amended soil increased with an increase in temperature from 10 to 30°C. AITC emission was also elevated with an increase ...

Developmental Dynamics of Meloidogyne hapla in Washington Wine Grapes.

Meloidogyne hapla is the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematode in Washington state wine grape vineyards. Understanding the developmental dynamics of M. hapla can improve the timing of diagnostic sampling and nematicide application. Three Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington were sampled March 2015 to March 2017 to determine the developmental dynamics of M. hapla by measuring second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil, eggs and adult females in roots, and fine root tips. A model of M. hapla J2 development based...

Amylose-Free ("waxy") Wheat Colonization by Fusarium spp. and Response to Fusarium Head Blight.

Hexaploid waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has null mutations in Wx genes and grain lacking amylose with increased digestibility and usability for specialty foods. The waxy cultivar Mattern is susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex, which produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). In experiment 1, conducted during low natural FHB, grain from waxy breeding lines, Mattern, and wild-type breeding lines and cultivars were assessed for Fusarium infection and D...

Characterization and Pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species Obtained from Avocado Trees with Branch Canker and Dieback and from Avocado Fruit with Stem End Rot in Chile.

Several species of the Botryosphaeriaceae family have been associated with branch canker, dieback, and stem end rot in avocado (Persea americana Mill.). In Chile, the incidence of diseases affecting the avocado tree increased from 2011 to 2016, which coincided with a severe drought that affected avocado production. Moreover, distant countries importing avocados from Chile also reported an increase of stem end rot of ripe avocados. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify the pathogen species assoc...

Formation of Erysiphe necator Chasmothecia in the Pacific Northwest United States.

In the Pacific Northwest, chasmothecia formation is not observed in vineyards until the beginning of véraison despite heavy infestations whereby 100% of leaf tissue is covered by Erysiphe necator. Mating type proximity and distribution were sampled from individual lesions (∼71 mm) on leaf tissue in a stratified sampling from three canopy heights at three times during the 2013, 2014, and 2015 growing seasons. Both mating types were observed at every sampling point and within the same lesions at all sampli...

Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates Endemic to Almond, Fig, and Pistachio Orchards in California with Potential to Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination in these Crops.

In California, aflatoxin contamination of almond, fig, and pistachio has become a serious problem in recent years due to long periods of drought and probably other climatic changes. The atoxigenic biocontrol product Aspergillus flavus AF36 has been registered for use to limit aflatoxin contamination of pistachio since 2012 and for use in almond and fig since 2017. New biocontrol technologies employ multiple atoxigenic genotypes because those provide greater benefits than using a single genotype. Almond, fig...

Inoculation Method Impacts Symptom Development Associated with Diaporthe aspalathi, D. caulivora, and D. longicolla on Soybean (Glycine max).

One hundred fifty-two Diaporthe isolates were recovered from symptomatic soybean (Glycine max) stems sampled from the U.S. states of Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and South Dakota. Using morphology and DNA sequencing, isolates were identified as D. aspalathi (8.6%), D. caulivora (24.3%), and D. longicolla (67.1%). Aggressiveness of five isolates each of the three pathogens was studied on cultivars Hawkeye (D. caulivora and D. longicolla) and Bragg (D. aspalathi) using toothpick, stem-wound, mycelium co...

The Effect of pH on Spore Germination, Growth, and Infection of Strawberry Roots by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, Cause of Fusarium wilt of Strawberry.

Previous work has shown that raising the pH of acidic soil to near neutrality can reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt. The basis for this effect has not been established. The present study assessed effects of pH on spore germination, growth, and infection of strawberry roots by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, the cause of Fusarium wilt of strawberry. There was not a significant effect of pH (5 versus 7) on the rate of spore germination at either 20 or 25°C for any of the three tested isolates (one r...

Characterization of Early Blight Resistance in Potato Cultivars.

Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is one of the most economically important foliar diseases of potatoes worldwide. In this study, 217 tetraploid old and modern potato cultivars were evaluated for foliar resistance to early blight in field experiments in Pennsylvania in 2016 and 2017. Relative area under the disease progress curve (RAUDPC) was calculated based on visual assessment of foliar disease during the growing season each year. RAUDPC ranged from 0.0090 to 0.7372 in 2016 and from 0...

Harvest of Lettuce from Verticillium-Infested Fields Has Little Impact on Postharvest Quality.

Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, poses a serious threat to the California lettuce industry. Knowledge of disease development and its impact on postharvest marketability would facilitate better management of the affected fields. This study investigated postharvest marketability of 22 lettuce varieties harvested from two Verticillium-infested commercial lettuce fields in Salinas and Watsonville, CA, in 2005 using a randomized complete block design. Periodic ...

Overwintering of Wheat Stripe Rust Under Field Conditions in the Northwestern Regions of China.

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Erikss., is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Identification of pathogen survival hot spots is important for predicting disease onset and subsequent spread to other regions, and such understanding is essential for developing integrated management strategies. We conducted field studies to determine the relationship of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici overwintering potential to winter temperatures in 10 sites in the northwest of China in three gro...

Assessment of Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum Biomass in Seedlings of Potential Host Cereal Species.

Fusarium crown rot is a major disease of wheat and barley worldwide, with the most frequently isolated causal agents being Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum. This study has successfully designed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay that is specific for F. culmorum, which has been used in conjunction with a previously established F. pseudograminearum-specific assay to compare the location and extent of infection by each fungus across a range of potential hosts, including six winter and thr...

Lack of Evidence of Vertical Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' by Carrot Seeds Suggests That Seed is not a Major Transmission Pathway.

'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' is a bacterium associated with several vegetative disorders on solanaceous and apiaceous crops. Following the recent detection of the bacterium in carrots in Europe, and particularly carrot plants used for seed production in France, two independent laboratories conducted experiments on the transmission of this pathogen by seed and had discordant results: one study showed no bacterial transmission to plants, and the other showed transmission to carrot seedlings starting...

Genetic Diversity of Stenocarpella maydis in the Major Corn Production Areas of the United States.

The fungus Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) B. Sutton, causal agent of Diplodia ear rot, is a prevalent corn (Zea mays L.) pathogen in the United States. Although S. maydis reduces grain quality, causes yield loss, and can produce mycotoxins in some countries, few studies have examined its biology and genetic diversity. We analyzed the genetic diversity of 174 S. maydis isolates sampled across the major corn production areas in the United States using nine different microsatellites. In all, 55 unique multilocus...

Construction of Full-length Infectious cDNA Clones of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Their Agroinoculation to Woody Plants by a Novel Method of Vacuum Infiltration.

Construction and agroinoculation of full-length infectious cDNA clones of plant RNA viruses have been used in plant virology to prove Koch's postulates and for development of viruses as vectors for expressing foreign genes in plants. Four full-length cDNA clones (pIF3-12, pIF3-14, pIF3-15, and pIF3-19) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolate 38/85 were produced. Two of the four full-length cDNA clones (pIF3-15 and pIF3-19) proved to be infectious on Nicotiana occidentalis 37B test plants by agroi...

Development and Validation of KASP-SNP Markers for QTL Underlying Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat Cultivar P10057.

Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is among the most important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) globally. Utilization of adult plant resistance (APR) constitutes a key tool for maintaining protection against this disease. The CIMMYT wheat cultivar P10057 displayed a high level of APR to stripe rust in germplasm evaluation in field environments. To clarify the genetic basis and identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in stripe rust resistance in P10057, three wheat populations...

Impacts of Fungal Stalk Rot Pathogens on Physicochemical Properties of Sorghum Grain.

Stalk rot diseases are among the most ubiquitous and damaging fungal diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) worldwide. Although reports of quantitative yield losses to stalk rots are available, the impact of stalk rot on grain quality attributes is unknown. This study was conducted to test whether stalk rot diseases could affect grain mineral (N, P, K; Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) and macronutrient (protein, fat, and starch) content, ash content, and physical traits (unit grain weight, hardness, a...

Effects of Wound Size, Amount of Sap, and Number of Blighted Nuts on Infection of Pistachio Organs by Neofusicoccum mediterraneum.

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effects of wounding of nut exocarp, susceptibility period after wounding, and sap nut on infection of pistachio nut by Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, the main causal agent of panicle and shoot blight of pistachio. Under controlled conditions and in the field, detached nuts were inoculated with a conidial suspension 30 min before or after wounding. In addition, a 30-µl drop of pistachio sap was placed on the surface of noninjured nuts 30 min before ...

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. mori, a New Forma Specialis Causing Fusarium Wilt of Blackberry.

Fusarium oxysporum has recently been identified as the cause of a wilt disease affecting blackberry in California and Mexico. Thirty-six isolates of F. oxysporum obtained from symptomatic blackberry plants in California and Mexico were comprised of nine distinct somatic compatibility groups (SCGs). Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated data set, consisting of sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin genes and the intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA, identified nine three-locus...


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