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PubMed Journal Database | Preventive veterinary medicine RSS

04:33 EST 26th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 122 from Preventive veterinary medicine

No effect of inoculation site and injection device on the skin test response of red deer to the intradermal injection of Mycobacterium avium-derived purified protein derivative (PPD).

Mycobacterial diseases are important health issues in farmed deer. The single intradermal tuberculin test is the standard test for tuberculosis testing in deer. We studied two factors which might influence the response of deer to skin testing: the inoculation site and the injection device. Deer included in this study were 2.5 years old farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds (n = 80). Two areas of 3 cm × 3 cm were shaved at the left side of the neck. Site A (SA) was situated about 10 cm caudal...

Importance of colostrum IgG antibodies level for prevention of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in neonatal dairy calves.

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide, causing intestinal infection to both humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the level of anti-C. parvum IgG antibodies transferred through colostrum from dams to newborn calves impacts the susceptibility to cryptosporidiosis. A number of 50 dams and their healthy newborns were included in the study. Colostrum samples were collected within 12 h after birth and anti-C. parvum IgG antibody levels were determined by s...

Effects of the novel concept 'outdoor veal calf' on antimicrobial use, mortality and weight gain in Switzerland.

The aim of the intervention study 'outdoor veal calf' was to evaluate a novel concept for calf fattening which aimed at reducing antimicrobial use without compromising animal health. Management practices such as commingling of calves from multiple birth farms, crowding, and suboptimal barn climate are responsible for high antimicrobial use and mortality in the veal calf population. The risk of selecting bacteria resistant to antimicrobials and of economic losses is accordingly elevated. The 'outdoor veal ca...

Risk factors for injury among military working dogs deployed to Iraq.

There is limited literature concerning the types of injuries that military working dogs (MWDs) face while in a deployed theater of operations and associated risk factors. To summarize injuries and identify injury risk factors in MWDs during their first deployments to Iraq, demographic and medical data were collected for 794 MWDs from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps that deployed to Iraq between March 20, 2003 and December 31, 2007. Sixty-two percent (n = 490) had a medical encounter during ...

Impact of foot-and-mouth-disease on goat behaviour after experimental infection with serotype SAT1 virus.

Infectious diseases and parasitic infestations can cause a set of non-specific clinical signs, such as increased body temperature and resting, and a decrease in food intake. These physiological and behavioural changes have an adaptive function facilitating defences against the pathogen and to support immune functions. These so-called' sickness behaviours' can also be used as an early detection tool for disease. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) still causes great economic losses in endemic countries, especially ...

Bovine neosporosis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite with worldwide distribution, which primarily causes disease in dogs and cattle. It has been recognized as an important cause of epidemic and endemic abortion in cattle around the world. There is no study to demonstrate the country level picture of the disease in Iran and estimate the extent of the problem, quantitatively. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to systematically review the observational studies on bovine neosporosis in Iran and estimate an ov...

Thymol efficacy against coccidiosis in pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

Investigation of thymol efficacy to control pigeon coccidiosis was performed using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The in-vitro experiment was conducted by treatment of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria species of pigeon by five concentrations (0.625-10%) from either thymol, eucalyptus essential oil or amprolium anticoccidial drug and incubation for 72 h. The in-vitro study revealed that thymol concentrations ≥1.25 % caused significant deformity on sporulated and unsporulated oocysts compared to the other two...

Alternative methods to reduce the animal use in quality controls of inactivated BTV8 Bluetongue vaccines.

The acceptance of serology data instead of challenge for market release of new batches of commercial vaccine is under evaluation by regulatory agencies in order to reduce the use of animals and costs for manufacturers. In this study two vaccines for Bluetongue virus serotype 8 were submitted to quality controls required by the European Pharmacopoeia and tested on sheep in comparison with a commercial inactivated vaccine. Body temperature, antibody titres and viraemia of vaccinated and controls sheep were re...

Assessment of associations between transition diseases and reproductive performance of dairy cows using survival analysis and decision tree algorithms.

This study aimed to evaluate the associations between transition cow conditions and diseases TD with fertility in Holstein cows, and to compare analytic methods for doing so. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazard, and decision tree models were used to analyze the associations of TD with the pregnancy risk at 120 and 210 DIM from a 1-year cohort with 1946 calvings from one farm. The association between TD and fertility was evaluated as follows: 1 cows with TD whether complicated with another TD or not TD-all...

Modeling the lumpy skin disease risk probability in central Zagros Mountains of Iran.

New Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) outbreaks are currently circulating in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, (western Iran, in central Zagros Mountains).

The role of farm business type on biosecurity practices in West Java broiler farms.

Biosecurity is important to prevent introduction and spread of infectious diseases, including Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). HPAI is currently endemic in Indonesia and it has triggered the adoption of a biosecurity policy. Although there is anecdotal evidence about the level of biosecurity on Indonesian broiler farms, formal evidence is lacking, as well as knowledge about determinants of low biosecurity levels. This paper has two main objectives: 1) to assess the levels of biosecurity measures ac...

Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle from Amazonas, Brazil.

Beef cattle farming in the Amazon region has expanded rapidly, but information on herd health is still scanty. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cattle, its spatial distribution and the risk factors associated with the infection in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1073 animals on 47 farms, located in 33 municipalities in the four state subpopulations. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by means of the indi...

Seroprevalence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in wild cervids in Poland.

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread amongst domesticated sheep and goats worldwide. Infection of wild ruminants in close contact with affected domesticated small ruminants has been proposed as an actor in SRLV epidemiology, but studies are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the apparent (AP) and estimated prevalence (EP) of exposure to SRLV infection in wild ruminants from Poland. Samples originating from 198 free-living cervids comprising 142 European red deer and 56 roe deer were...

Resilience of French cattle farms to bovine tuberculosis detection between 2004 and 2017.

France was recognized officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB) free by the European Union in 2001, however an increase of bTB detections has been reported since 2004. Even though the recommended method for bTB control is whole herd depopulation, test-and-cull protocols have been authorized in pilot areas since 2008 and in the rest of France since 2014. BTB impact at the state level and on trade has been thoroughly studied, however the consequences of these control measures at a farm level are poorly understood....

Milk production losses in Latxa dairy sheep associated with small ruminant lentivirus infection.

Visna/Maedi is a disease of sheep caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection that is widespread throughout the world and that has been recognized to be present in the Basque Country (Spain) since the early 1980's. Nearly seven decades of studies have improved the knowledge on its clinical signs and epidemiology. However, its slow progressive nature, subclinical most of the time, makes difficult to assess its real impact on productive traits, a question of critical importance to balance out the eco...

Behavioural factors of Dutch pig producers related to control of toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden. Infected pig meat is a common risk source of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, it is important to control T. gondii infections in pigs. Improving farm management to control the introduction risk likely contributes to that aim. A pig producer only implements control measures when he or she is aware of the underlying problem, wants to solve it, and is able to solve it. If a pig producer is not implementing appropria...

Herd level risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and clinical incidence in dairy herds in Chile.

The study objective was to identify risk factors associated to: i) the infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and ii) paratuberculosis clinical incidence in Chilean dairy herds. A random sample of forty herds with previous history of MAP infection was selected. At herd level, all lactating cows were tested using a commercial ELISA kit. On the sampling date, a questionnaire gathering information on herd demographics, husbandry practices, and biosecurity measures was applied. Addition...

Understanding the vulnerability of beef producers in Australia to an FMD outbreak using a Bayesian Network predictive model.

Effective and adaptable biosecurity and surveillance systems are crucial for maintaining and increasing Australia's competitive advantages in international markets, and for the production of high quality, safe animal products. These systems are continuously strengthened by ongoing government and industry investment. However, a better understanding of evolving disease risks and the country's capacity to respond to these risks is needed. This study developed a vulnerability framework based on characteristics ...

Serological evidence of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in pigs in a low human incidence state, Goa, India.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is a leading cause of encephalitis in humans especially children in Asia. Aquatic wading birds are the reservoirs and pigs serve as amplifying hosts for JEV. Humans and horses are dead-end hosts. JE is endemic in several states of India. Goa, a small state on the west coast of India, had witnessed JE outbreaks in the past and as on date human JE cases are reported sporadically. Although human JE cases are...

Spain as a dispersion model for Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm in dogs in Europe.

Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) causes ocular infection in carnivorous animals and humans. While growing numbers of companion dogs and sometimes cats are being diagnosed with thelaziosis, little is known about its real spread. As it has been also diagnosed in wild animals and human beings, it is considered a potential emerging zoonotic disease. This study provides information about the spread of the parasite in dogs in Spain since its initial description in 2010 until 2018. The first detection ...

Assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance effectiveness in French wildlife: An operational approach.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, zoonotic, bacterial disease mostly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which can affect both domestic and wild species. France was officially declared bTB-free in 2001 but faced since 2004 an increase of the prevalence in cattle. Since 2001, bTB has been detected in several wild species: red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and badger (Meles meles). Infected wild species constitute a major threat, because they may contribute to ...

An observational study of the dry period length and its relation to milk yield, health, and fertility in two dairy cow breeds.

This study evaluated associations between dry period length (DPL) in dairy cows and energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, health, and fertility, using a dataset involving 78 577 lactations in cows of two breeds, Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Herds with at least 20 cows and at least 20 % purebred SR and at least 20 % SH during the year 2015/2016 were included in the dataset. Cows were divided into parity groups 2 and 3 or older and DPL was classified into six 10-day groups (30-39 to 80-89 d)....

Prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from imported ornamental fish in Italy: A translocation of resistant strains?

The rapid expansion of the ornamental aquaculture industry over the past decades has resulted in a concomitant increase in the use of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of ornamental fish in the translocation of antibiotic resistant bacteria, with possible consequences for aquarium and public health. We assessed the prevalence of bacterial infections and the antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from 134 ornamental fish imported into...

Cost-effectiveness of two different protocols for animal tracing investigations of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in France.

In the French bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance program, tracing-on and back investigations have a major importance as, in 2016, they represented about 21 % of the detected outbreaks. Building on our previous work on the other surveillance system components (Poirier et al., 2019), we evaluated for the first time the sensitivity and the cost of the two existing protocols of bTB's tracing-on investigations trough scenario tree modelling with a stochastic approach. We used French databases (national datab...

Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and early lactation management strategies on pasture-based dairy farms in Colombia.

The increasing global demand for food requires sustainable solutions to close the gap in agricultural yield between industrialized and non-industrialized countries. Our objectives in this cross-sectional study were to: 1) characterize farm populations, milk yield, and early lactation management strategies of dairy cows in three different regions of Colombia, and 2) determine the association of these management strategies with blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in the first 42 days in milk (DIM). ...


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