PubMed Journal Database | Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences RSS

18:06 EST 18th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 55 from Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences

Exome sequencing in families with severe mental illness identifies novel and rare variants in genes implicated in Mendelian neuropsychiatric syndromes.

Severe Mental Illnesses, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are highly heritable, and have a complex pattern of inheritance. Genome wide association studies detect a part of the heritability, which can be attributed to common genetic variation. Examination of rare variants with Next Generation Sequencing may add to the understanding of genetic architecture of SMIs.

Tramadol associated Pica: A case report.

Pica has been defined as consumption of non-nutritive substances in a manner which is not sanctioned culturally. Pica has often been associated with micronutrient deficiency, but the strength of relationship remains unclear. Case reports/series have been published on pica associated with various psychotropic medications, like risperidone, olanzapine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Estimating contribution of rare non-coding variants to neuropsychiatric disorders.

Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing technology, a number of large-scale comprehensive analyses of genetic variations in protein-coding regions (i.e., whole-exome sequencing studies), have been conducted for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. These studies, especially those focusing on de novo (newly arising) mutations and extremely rare variants, have successfully identified previously unrecognized disease ...

Erythropoietin preparation drastically improved activities of daily living in a patient with severe dementia: A case report.

A 79-year-old woman with Alzheimer's disease and chronic renal failure was hospitalized with a trochanteric fracture of the left femur. Surgery was performed, however, from approximately day 30 of hospitalization, the patient's level of activity gradually decreased. Further, her food intake was also reduced to several mouthfuls per day, and the patient became bedridden. In accordance with the wishes of her family, a conservative approach was taken, with oral intake when possible and fluid replacement. Malnu...

PCN Art Brut Series No. 3, Artwork Description.

Characteristics of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration change during pleasant and unpleasant image recall tasks in patients with depression: Comparison with healthy subjects.

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to show cognitive impairment in attention, cognition control, and motivation. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Neurophysiological abnormalities have been examined in MDD patients by several neuroimaging studies. However, the underlying neural mechanism is still unclear. We evaluated the brain function during pleasant and unpleasant image recall tasks using multi-channel near-infrared spe...

A randomized, double-blind comparison of aripiprazole/sertraline combination and placebo/sertraline combination in patients with major depressive disorder.

This study compared the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole/sertraline combination (ASC) and placebo/sertraline combination (PSC) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who showed an inadequate response to sertraline 100 mg/day.

Cotard's syndrome in anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) encephalitis.

Although Cotard's syndrome is most commonly associated with psychiatric diseases, it has also been associated with medical conditions. A 31-year-old nurse complained of difficulties in performing her work. At 4 days post-onset, she showed depersonalization, saying, "I feel myself detached from my own body." At 7 days post-onset, she began to throw herself against walls in an attempt to commit suicide and was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. The following day, however, she developed status epilepticus and...

Management of chronic pain and opioid dependence with buprenorphine/naloxone: a case report.

The prevalence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20% to 40% worldwide, in which the rates of opioid addition ranged between 8% and 12%. The consequences of opioid misuse cause significant morbidity and mortality and the treatment of chronic pain with opioid addiction is challenging. Here we present a patient with chronic pain and opioid use disorder who was treated successfully with buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®). The patient signed informed consent and anonymity has been preserved. The study is appro...

Neuroscience-based Nomenclature: What is it, why is it needed, and what comes next?

Artwork Description.

The therapeutic role of Rifampicin in Alzheimer's Disease.

Rifampicin exerts significant brain protective functions in multiple experimental models. Here we summarized the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin that is mediated by its anti-inflammatory, anti-tau, anti-amyloid and cholinergic effects. Beyond suggesting that rifampicin shows strong brain protective effects in preclinical models of Alzheimer's Disease we also have provided substantial clinical evidence for the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of r...

Excess incidence and risk factors for recurrent pneumonia in bipolar disorder.

Patients with bipolar disorder had poorer outcomes after pneumonia and could have a higher risk for recurrence of pneumonia. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of recurrent pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder.

The Relationship between Anxious Temperament and Harm Avoidance in Medical Students and Staffs.

In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance.

Identification of somatic mutations in postmortem human brains by whole genome sequencing and their implications for psychiatric disorders.

Somatic mutations in the human brain are hypothesized to contribute to the functional diversity of brain cells as well as the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, there are still few reports on somatic mutations in non-neoplastic human brain tissues. This study attempted to unveil the landscape of somatic mutations in the human brain.

Mutations of the Glycine Cleavage System Genes Possibly Affect the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia through Metabolomic Profile Changes.

Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, the glycine cleavage system (GCS) was shown to affect NMDAR function in the brain. GCS functional defects cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), the atypical phenotype of which presents psychiatric symptoms similar to SCZ. Here, we examined the involvement of GCS in SCZ.

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reported Adverse Events of Long-term Intranasal Oxytocin Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Recent studies suggested oxytocin as a possible drug to treat social deficits caused by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but the safety of intranasal oxytocin in autistic patients is not established. The aim of this review was to characterise the side effect profile of long-term intranasal oxytocin in treatment of ASD compared to placebo. All randomised controlled trials of intranasal oxytocin in the treatment of ASD published before 1 January 2017 that reported safety data were identified from databases inc...

A case of myxedema coma induced by lithium carbonate in a patient with schizophrenia.

We present a rare case of myxedema coma (MC), the most extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, induced by lithium carbonate (Li) in a patient with schizophrenia. A 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department due to unconsciousness. After developing schizophrenia, he had been living in a nursing home for the previous 40 years; he had no any other physical illness.

Natural regulatory IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against malondialdehyde regulate oxidative and nitrosative pathways and coupled with IgM responses to nitroso-adducts attenuate depressive and physiosomatic symptoms at the end of term pregnancy.

To delineate the effects of IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitroso (NO)-adducts on nitro-oxidative stress and depressive and physiosomatic symptoms (DPSS) at the end of term.

MEF2C mRNA expression and cognitive function in Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Despite continuing research into Alzheimer's disease (AD), its pathological mechanisms and modulating factors remain unknown. Several genes influence AD pathogenesis by affecting inflammatory pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is one such candidate gene for AD.

Suvorexant as an orexin antagonist may regulate serum glucose levels in psychiatric patients with insomnia.

Disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep disorder have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose and insulin levels and increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hypothalamic orexin neurons, which are known to regulate sleep/wake stability, feeding behavior, autonomic nerve activity and energy metabolism, can bidirectionally regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis via control of autonomic balance, leading to generation of the daily blood glucose oscillation and preventing insulin resistance.(1).

Genetics and Epigenetics of Autism (Review).

Autism is a developmental disorder that starts before age 3, and children with autism has impairment in both social interaction and communication, and has restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. There is a strong heritable component of autism and autism spectrum disorder as studies have shown that parents who have a child with ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child with ASD. Since the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders have been increa...

An open-label extension long-term study of the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder in Japan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in treating irritability in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with autistic disorder (AD) in Japan.

Neural Basis of Major Depression: Beyond Monoamine Hypothesis.

Monoamine hypothesis has been accepted as the most common hypothesis of major depression for a long period because of its simplicity and understandability. Actually, most of currently used antidepressants have been considered to act based on monoamine hypothesis. However, it has been pointed out as an important problem of monoamine hypothesis that it is unable to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. In addition, a large number of patients with major depression has been refractory to currently...

Working memory network alterations in high-functioning adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder.

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically have deficits in the working memory (WM) system. Working memory is found to be an essential chain in successfully navigating in the social world. We hypothesize that brain networks for WM have an altered network integrity in ASD compared to controls.

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