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While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is currently diagnosed based solely on classic psychological and behavioral symptoms, a growing body of evidence has highlighted a link between this disorder and alterations in the immune and inflammatory systems. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that PTSD is associated with significantly increased rates of physical comorbidities in which immune dysregulation is involved, such as metabolic syndrome, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune di...
To improve early recognition of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDArE) in children and adolescents by identifying characteristic temporal patterns of clinical features in patients likely to be referred for psychiatric evaluation. In this form of autoimmune encephalitis, NMDAr hypofunction is caused by autoantibodies to receptor surface components. Clinical outcomes following prompt immunotherapy are usually good, but delayed treatment often results in a protracted course with signific...
Sleep disorders can be associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between cognitive status and presence of sleep symptoms and sleep disorders in PD patients.
Non-adherence or partial adherence to psychotropic medication is found in 18-70% of patients. However, many previously used methods for the assessment of adherence (e.g., questionnaires, pill counts, and electronic systems) might underreport actual rates of non-adherence to medication. Target was to quantify adherence using plasma-levels.
Most patients with bipolar disorder have depressive onset polarity. There is, however, very few studies investigating predictors of hypomanic and/or manic change for patients with major depression in Japan. We preliminary explored predictors of hypomanic and/or manic switch during acute phase antidepressants treatment by using the data of the SUND trial that is a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial. Total of 2011 patients participated and the main findings are published elsewhere. This article...
Data pertaining to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) training systems are limited as extant research was mostly derived from a one-time data collection. This 5-year follow-up survey collects updated information on CAP training systems in the Far East, allowing for the tracking of system changes over the past 5 years.
Severe Mental Illnesses, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are highly heritable, and have a complex pattern of inheritance. Genome wide association studies detect a part of the heritability, which can be attributed to common genetic variation. Examination of rare variants with Next Generation Sequencing may add to the understanding of genetic architecture of SMIs.
Pica has been defined as consumption of non-nutritive substances in a manner which is not sanctioned culturally. Pica has often been associated with micronutrient deficiency, but the strength of relationship remains unclear. Case reports/series have been published on pica associated with various psychotropic medications, like risperidone, olanzapine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing technology, a number of large-scale comprehensive analyses of genetic variations in protein-coding regions (i.e., whole-exome sequencing studies), have been conducted for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. These studies, especially those focusing on de novo (newly arising) mutations and extremely rare variants, have successfully identified previously unrecognized disease ...
A 79-year-old woman with Alzheimer's disease and chronic renal failure was hospitalized with a trochanteric fracture of the left femur. Surgery was performed, however, from approximately day 30 of hospitalization, the patient's level of activity gradually decreased. Further, her food intake was also reduced to several mouthfuls per day, and the patient became bedridden. In accordance with the wishes of her family, a conservative approach was taken, with oral intake when possible and fluid replacement. Malnu...
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to show cognitive impairment in attention, cognition control, and motivation. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Neurophysiological abnormalities have been examined in MDD patients by several neuroimaging studies. However, the underlying neural mechanism is still unclear. We evaluated the brain function during pleasant and unpleasant image recall tasks using multi-channel near-infrared spe...
This study compared the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole/sertraline combination (ASC) and placebo/sertraline combination (PSC) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who showed an inadequate response to sertraline 100 mg/day.
Although Cotard's syndrome is most commonly associated with psychiatric diseases, it has also been associated with medical conditions. A 31-year-old nurse complained of difficulties in performing her work. At 4 days post-onset, she showed depersonalization, saying, "I feel myself detached from my own body." At 7 days post-onset, she began to throw herself against walls in an attempt to commit suicide and was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. The following day, however, she developed status epilepticus and...
The prevalence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20% to 40% worldwide, in which the rates of opioid addition ranged between 8% and 12%. The consequences of opioid misuse cause significant morbidity and mortality and the treatment of chronic pain with opioid addiction is challenging. Here we present a patient with chronic pain and opioid use disorder who was treated successfully with buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®). The patient signed informed consent and anonymity has been preserved. The study is appro...
Rifampicin exerts significant brain protective functions in multiple experimental models. Here we summarized the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin that is mediated by its anti-inflammatory, anti-tau, anti-amyloid and cholinergic effects. Beyond suggesting that rifampicin shows strong brain protective effects in preclinical models of Alzheimer's Disease we also have provided substantial clinical evidence for the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of r...
Patients with bipolar disorder had poorer outcomes after pneumonia and could have a higher risk for recurrence of pneumonia. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of recurrent pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder.
In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance.
Somatic mutations in the human brain are hypothesized to contribute to the functional diversity of brain cells as well as the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, there are still few reports on somatic mutations in non-neoplastic human brain tissues. This study attempted to unveil the landscape of somatic mutations in the human brain.
Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, the glycine cleavage system (GCS) was shown to affect NMDAR function in the brain. GCS functional defects cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), the atypical phenotype of which presents psychiatric symptoms similar to SCZ. Here, we examined the involvement of GCS in SCZ.
Recent studies suggested oxytocin as a possible drug to treat social deficits caused by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but the safety of intranasal oxytocin in autistic patients is not established. The aim of this review was to characterise the side effect profile of long-term intranasal oxytocin in treatment of ASD compared to placebo. All randomised controlled trials of intranasal oxytocin in the treatment of ASD published before 1 January 2017 that reported safety data were identified from databases inc...
We present a rare case of myxedema coma (MC), the most extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, induced by lithium carbonate (Li) in a patient with schizophrenia. A 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department due to unconsciousness. After developing schizophrenia, he had been living in a nursing home for the previous 40 years; he had no any other physical illness.