PubMed Journal Database | Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics RSS

20:00 EDT 26th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 113 from Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics

Efficacy and safety of a first-in-class inhaled PDE3/4 inhibitor (ensifentrine) vs salbutamol in asthma.

This study aimed to investigate the dose-response and pharmacology of a range of single doses of nebulised ensifentrine (RPL554), an inhaled dual phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3/4 inhibitor in patients with asthma.

Pharmacokinetics of ambrisentan in a patient with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and a total gastrectomy.

Significant advances have been made in the treatment of arterial pulmonary hypertension (PAH). However, no studies to date have assessed the impact of altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy or absorption on the efficacy and bioavailability of oral medications in the treatment of PAH. Here, we describe the treatment of a patient with PAH initially treated with epoprostenol. Subsequently, an intractable upper GI bleed required a total gastrectomy. With epoprostenol, there was near normalization of hemodynamics...

Fevipiprant has a low risk of influencing co-medication pharmacokinetics: Impact on simvastatin and rosuvastatin in different SLCO1B1 genotypes.

Fevipiprant, a prostaglandin D receptor 2 antagonist, is in clinical development as a treatment for asthma. The goal of this study was to assess the potential of fevipiprant to cause drug-drug interactions (DDI) as a perpetrator, that is, by altering the pharmacokinetics (PK) of co-medications. In vitro drug interaction studies of clinically relevant drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters were conducted for fevipiprant and its acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolite. Comparison of K values with unbound systemi...

Nicotinic receptor dependent regulation of cough and other airway defensive reflexes.

Nicotinic receptor activation in the airways evokes airway defensive reflexes including cough. These reflexes are the direct result of bronchopulmonary afferent nerve activation, which may occur directly, through activation of nicotinic receptors expressed on the terminals of airway sensory nerves, or indirectly, secondary to the end organ effects associated with autonomic nerve stimulation. The irritating effects of nicotine delivered topically to the airways are counterbalanced by an inhibitory effect of ...

Bronchiectasis and cough: An old relationship in need of renewed attention.

Bronchiectasis is an increasingly recognised respiratory condition with limited therapeutic options and a complex spectrum of clinical manifestations that invariably includes chronic cough. As the primary presentation of bronchiectasis in most cases, chronic cough and its mechanistic underpinnings are of central importance but remain poorly understood in this setting. Bronchiectasis is also increasingly identified as an underlying cause of chronic cough highlighting the interrelationship between the two con...

Characteristics of Chinese chronic cough patients.

Chronic cough is one of the most common complains for patients seeking medical attention in both general practice and respiratory specialist clinics. Cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, upper airway cough syndrome, as well as gastro-esophageal reflux disease are common conditions associated with chronic cough, and cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis account for a higher proportion of patients with chronic cough in China than in Western countries. An older female predominance has been re...

Interaction between blood lead level and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on risk of heart attack or stroke: USA NHANES, 2013-2014.

Among all risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), lead is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Besides CVD, blood lead level is also related to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The inter-relationship of CVD, blood lead level and COPD are not yet studied.

Intra-tracheal amikacin spray delivery in healthy mechanically ventilated piglets.

Nebulization during mechanical ventilation is impeded by large extra-pulmonary drug deposition and long administration durations which currently limit implementation of inhaled antibiotic therapy. Direct intra-tracheal delivery using a sprayer represents an appealing alternative investigated in small animal models, but large animal data are lacking.

Are neural pathways processing airway inputs sensitized in patients with cough hypersensitivity?

Patients with cough hypersensitivity exhibit unusually low thresholds for responses to tussive stimuli, exaggerated responses to suprathreshold tussive stimuli, and report spontaneous experiences of urge-to-cough in the absence of exogenous stimulation. These aberrant responses to tussive challenge have the hallmark features of behaviours associated with a sensitized sensory system. Searching for further evidence to implicate neural sensitization in the symptomatology of cough hypersensitivity warrants cons...

Airway hypersensitivity induced by eosinophil granule-derived cationic proteins.

Vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves play an important role in the manifestation of airway hypersensitivity, a common and prominent pathophysiological feature of airway inflammatory diseases. Eosinophil granule-derived cationic proteins are known to be involved in the mucosal damage and development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness during allergic airway inflammation. In view of these background information, we have carried out a series of studies to investigate the effect of cationic proteins on th...

Efficacy and safety of the dual bronchodilator combination umeclidinium/vilanterol in COPD by age and airflow limitation severity: A pooled post hoc analysis of seven clinical trials.

Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and those with more severe airway limitation are perceived to experience reduced efficacy from inhaled bronchodilators, especially those administered in a dry powder inhaler. This study compared the efficacy and safety of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β-agonist dry powder combination in elderly patients with COPD and patients with moderate-to-very severe airflow limitation.

Assessing laryngeal function and hypersensitivity.

The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans, adapted to simultaneously deliver several key respiratory functions including airway protection, swallowing and phonation. In some individuals the larynx can adopt a state that could be considered 'dysfunctional' or maladaptive; resulting in or contributing to a range of clinical disorders such as chronic refractory cough, inducible laryngeal obstruction (previously termed paradoxical vocal fold movement or vocal cord dysfunction), muscle ten...

Dual role of autophagy/mitophagy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease characterised by progressive, irreversible airflow limitation. Multiple regulatory pathways are involved in COPD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence from clinical and basic medical research has suggested that autophagy-a highly conserved catabolic process mediated under various cellular stress conditions-plays a role in the development and prognosis of COPD. Nevertheless, precise function of autophagy remains debatable owing to its beneficial...

Outcomes of fibrinolytic therapy for patients with metastatic cancer and acute pulmonary embolism.

Malignancy is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and around the world and the second leading cause of death in the United States. There is little data on the impact of metastatic cancer on the risk of hemorrhagic stroke or mortality among patients undergoing fibrinolytic therapy (FT) for acute PE.

Why chronic cough in children is different.

Recently, there have been robust changes in our knowledge of the neurophysiology of cough and novel clinical etiologies. Specifically, cough hypersensitivity in adults and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children have been increasingly investigated, and differences between chronic cough in children and adults have been widely reported. In young children, postinfectious cough, bronchiectasis, airway malacia, PBB, and asthma appear to be the main causes of cough; however, by adolescence, the causes o...

Chronic cough and obesity.

With respective prevalence of 13% and 9.6%, obesity and chronic cough are two common conditions worldwide. The crucial role of obesity has been highlighted in the development and progression of many respiratory diseases. According to the results of epidemiological studies, obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, may also be associated with chronic cough (CC). CC seems to be more severe in obese patients compared to normal-weight subjects. The management of CC may differ slightly in obese patients compared ...

Non-pharmacological interventions for chronic cough: The past, present and future.

Non-pharmacological interventions have been explored in people with refractory chronic cough. Normally delivered by Physiotherapists and or Speech and Language Therapists, these interventions aim to educate patients about their cough, provide them with cough suppression techniques and breathing exercises, improve vocal/laryngeal hydration and psychoeducational counselling to help them gain greater control of their cough. Six key studies have been completed over the past 12 years that have consistently found...

Aminophylline increases parasternal muscle action in awake canines.

The traditional theophylline bronchodilator, aminophylline, is still widely used, especially in the treatment of COPD. The effects of aminophylline on ventilation and action of the costal diaphragm have been previously defined, but other respiratory muscles - notably the chest wall, are not well determined. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aminophylline on the Parasternal intercostal, a key obligatory inspiratory muscle, examining muscle length, shortening and EMG. We studied 11 awake canines, chro...

Precision-cut lung slices from bleomycin treated animals as a model for testing potential therapies for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease with incompletely understood pathophysiology. Effectiveness of available medicines is limited and the need for new and improved therapies remains. Due to complexity of the disease, it is difficult to develop predictable in vitro models. In this study we have described precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) prepared from bleomycin treated mice as an in vitro model for testing of novel compounds with antifibrotic activity. We have shown that PCLS during ...

Cough in exercise and athletes.

In the general population, particularly in individuals with asthma, cough is a common symptom, often reported after exertion, although regular exercise may be associated with a reduction in the prevalence of cough. In athletes, exercise-induced cough is also a particularly frequent symptom. The main etiologies of cough in athletes are somewhat similar to non-athletes, including asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness, upper airways disorders such as allergic or non-allergic rhinitis, and exercise-induced laryngea...

Heterogeneity of cough neurobiology: Clinical implications.

Cough is an important protective mechanism for clearing the airways but becomes a troublesome, and often difficult to treat, symptom in respiratory disease. Although cough can be produced as a reflex in response to the presence of irritants within the airways, emerging research demonstrates an unappreciated complexity in the peripheral and central neural systems that regulate cough. This complexity includes multiple primary sensory neurons that can induce or facilitate reflex coughing, different ascending c...

Inhalable dry powder prepared from folic acid-conjugated docetaxel liposomes alters pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties relevant to lung cancer chemotherapy.

Pulmonary delivery of anti-cancer drugs in the form of nanoparticulate dry powders is considered a promising modality for treating lung cancer. However, it is not known whether the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nano-preparations are altered after co-spray drying. In this study, we compared the physicochemical property, anti-cancer activity, tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic behavior of docetaxel-loaded folic acid-conjugated liposomes (LPs-DTX-FA) with those of dry powder prepared by co-spray-dr...

Cough in pulmonary tuberculosis: Existing knowledge and general insights.

Cough is a prominent symptom of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), one of the oldest and most prevalent infectious diseases. Coughing probably has a pivotal role in transmission of the causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite this, little research to date has addressed this subject. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of cough in TB and how exactly coughing patterns predict infectiousness is scant, but this is changing. This overview summarises the existing evidence for the infectiousness of cough i...

SUMOylation of Vps34 by SUMO1 promotes phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating autophagy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease without effective therapies. PAH is associated with a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and irreversible pulmonary vascular remodeling. SUMO1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier 1) can bind to target proteins and lead to protein SUMOylation, an important post-translational modification with a key role in many diseases. However, the contribution of SUMO1 to PAH remains to be fully characterized.

Adrenomedullin mediates pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and COPD.

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a pluripotent peptide hormone with contradictory effects in human health and disease. In chronic inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma and COPD, AM has been shown to inhibit inflammation and cell proliferation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AM on pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and COPD.

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