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PubMed Journal Database | Radiation protection dosimetry RSS

10:09 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 393 from Radiation protection dosimetry

PRELIMINARY STAFF DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR COMMON FLUOROSCOPY GUIDED PROCEDURES AT KORLE-BU TEACHING HOSPITAL, ACCRA, GHANA.

Preliminary studies on effective and eye lens doses of six Radiologists, four Cardiologists have been conducted for a period of 3 months. Electronic dosemeters positioned under and over lead apron of staff were used for the dosimetry. The estimated effective dose per month to Cardiologist and Radiologist were 0.01-0.07 mSv and 0.03-0.14 mSv, respectively. The estimated eye lens doses per month to Cardiologists and Radiologists were also 0.15-0.30 mSv and 0.53-3.39 mSv, respectively. The effective doses per ...

RADON-222 ASSESSMENT AND ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE IN GROUNDWATER IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

Radon-222 concentration in groundwater from Lagos State, Nigeria was measured. The arithmetic means of the radon concentration in the water ranged between 0.138 ± 0.058 and 0.411 ± 0.135 Bq.l-1. The geometric means ranged from 0.121 to 0.389 Bq.l-1. These were below the recommended limits set by International Organizations. The mean annual effective doses from the ingestion of radon-222 in water varied from 2.27 ± 0.95 to 6.75 ± 2.22 μSv.y-1 for adult, 4.54 ± 1.91 to 13.50 ± 4.43 μSv.y-1 for child a...

PATIENT DOSE SURVEY BASED ON SIZE-SPECIFIC DOSE ESTIMATE AND ACCEPTABLE QUALITY DOSE IN CHEST AND ABDOMEN/PELVIS CT EXAMINATIONS.

The practical aspects of two recently developed patient dose optimization methods in computed tomography (CT) examinations, size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) and acceptable quality dose (AQD), were verified for the chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations. A dose survey was performed in a CT institute by considering patients lateral diameter, weight and body mass index (BMI). The AQD tables for weight and BMI groups and SSDE threshold curves were obtained. The mean of volume CT dose index and dose length prod...

SESAME: A TOOL FOR NUMERICAL DOSIMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION OF PATIENTS OVEREXPOSURES IN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY.

Radiation overexposure accidents are rare but can have severe health consequences. Evaluating the dose received by the patient is a crucial step in the medical management. For that purpose, for more than 15 years, IRSN has been developing an in-house tool named SESAME for the numerical reconstruction of radiological accidents due to external sources. Recently, two new functionalities were implemented in SESAME to allow accurate reconstructions of interventional radiology (IR) overexposures. The experimental...

HOW TO ESTABLISH AN ADEQUATE SYSTEM FOR EYE LENS DOSE MONITORING: A PROPOSAL FOR TYPICAL WORKPLACES.

For years, the dose limit of 150 mSv for occupational exposure of the lens of the eye to ionising radiation was rarely exceeded, and the dose to the eye was only monitored occasionally. With the national implementation of the European Basic Safety Standards in 2018, this dose limit was reduced to 20 mSv and the Member States are expected to implement an adequate system for the monitoring of category A workers. Where the system for monitoring the whole body dose is settled in most countries, this is not the ...

INSTITUTIONAL BREAST DOSES IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY.

The objective of this study was to survey breast dose in screening mammography, establish institutional doses and compare them with the corresponding dose values. Three hundred women between the ages of 40 and 80 years old participated in the study. All mammographic examinations were performed with a digital mammography system. The women characteristics (age, weight, height, BMI), technical and exposure parameters (anode/filter material, projection, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube...

NOVEL ANALYTICAL STUDY FOR REACTION INTERMEDIATES IN THE PRIMARY RADIATION INTERACTION OF DNA USING A SYNCHROTRON RADIATION-INDUCED LUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY.

To identify the precise molecular processes to induce DNA lesions, we attempt a novel spectroscopy of X-ray induced luminescence (XIL) using soft X-ray synchrotron radiation, which is a non-destructive analysis of the reaction intermediates in the elementary reaction pathway of damage induction and self-organized restoration. Using a liquid micro-jet technique to introduce aqueous samples in a vacuum chamber, we measure UV-visible luminescence from nucleotide solution as a function of the soft X-ray energy ...

EYE LENS DOSES OF RADIOLOGY TECHNOLOGISTS WHO ASSIST PATIENTS DURING RADIOGRAPHY.

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised a drastic decrease of the annual eye equivalent dose limit. The present study aimed to evaluate the amounts of radiation to which the eye lenses of radiological technologists (RT) become exposed and the effects of wearing lead glasses on dose reduction while assisting patients during radiographic assessments. Lens equivalent doses (Hp(3)) were measured at the neck using personal dosemeter. In addition, Hp(3) was estimated by converting a...

CONCEPTS OF OPERATIONS FOR A US DOSIMETRY AND BIODOSIMETRY NETWORK.

The USA must be prepared to provide a prompt, coordinated and integrated response for radiation dose and injury assessment for suspected radiation exposure, whether it involves isolated cases or mass casualties. Dose estimation for radiation accidents typically necessitates a multiple parameter diagnostics approach that includes clinical, biological and physical dosimetry to provide an early-phase radiation dose. A US Individual Dosimetry and Biodosimetry Network (US-IDBN) will increase surge capacity for c...

MODELING STUDIES ON DICENTRICS INDUCTION AFTER SUB-MICROMETER FOCUSED ION BEAM GRID IRRADIATION.

The biophysical simulation tool PARTRAC contains modules for DNA damage response representing non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Individual DNA ends from the induced DSB are followed regarding both their enzymatic processing and spatial mobility, as is needed for chromosome aberrations to arise via ligating broken ends from different chromosomes. In particular, by tracking the genomic locations of the ligated fragments and the positions...

DISCRIMINATION METHOD FOR GAMMA RAY DOSES IN NEUTRON FIELDS USING AN IONIZATION CHAMBER WITH ATTENUATION FILTERS.

Neutron fields produced by an accelerator-driven neutron source are generally mixed radiation fields that consist of fast neutrons and gamma rays. To estimate the biological effects of fast neutrons precisely, the gamma ray dose contamination must be evaluated in neutron fields. In this work, we developed a discrimination technique for absorbed doses (60Co gamma-ray equivalent) of fast neutrons and gamma rays using an ionization chamber. The filter thickness dependences of the absorbed doses of fast neutron...

TRACKING DOWN ALPHA-PARTICLES: THE DESIGN, CHARACTERISATION AND TESTING OF A SHALLOW-ANGLED ALPHA-PARTICLE IRRADIATOR.

Human exposure to α-particles from radon and other radionuclides is associated with carcinogenesis, but if well controlled and targeted to cancer cells, α-particles may be used in radiotherapy. Thus, it is important to understand the biological effects of α-particles to predict cancer risk and optimise radiotherapy. To enable studies of α-particles in cells, we developed and characterised an α-particle automated irradiation rig that allows exposures at a shallow angle (70° to the normal) of cell monol...

THE COMPLEXITY OF QUANTITIES IN RADIATION DOSIMETRY: THE ISSUE OF RADIATION QUALITY.

When Harald Rossi developed a new radiation measurement instrument more than 60 years ago-the tissue equivalent low-pressure proportional counter, also called Rossi Counter-his initial intention was to provide a technique to measure LET. He realized soon that the measurements provided insight into the stochastic nature of the interactions of ionizing radiation with matter and that the measured results represented an alternative to characterize radiation quality in terms of stochastic or microdosimetric quan...

A NOVEL BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY ASSAY AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR TRIAGE DOSE ASSESSMENT IN CASE OF LARGE-SCALE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY.

In case of mass radiological emergencies, new strategies involving biological and clinical endpoints are requested for an efficient triage classification of casualties. For this purpose, we developed a novel protocol combining the two most established cytogenetic methods used in biological dosimetry (dicentric and micronucleus assays) into a single one, in order to have a time-saving, inexpensive and potentially automatable instrument to be used for triage purposes in case of large-scale radiological events...

THE RADIOBIOLOGICAL PLATFORM AT ARRONAX.

The cyclotron ARRONAX can deliver different types of particles (protons, deuterons, alpha-particles) in an energy range up to 68 MeV. One of its six experimental halls is dedicated to studying the interactions of radiation with matter including living matter. A horizontal beamline for cell irradiation has been setup and characterized. The radiobiological characterization was done in terms of V79 cells survival after irradiation with 68 MeV protons. The results demonstrate that radiobiological studies can be...

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BASAL CELL HYPERPLASIA IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLONAL EXPANSION AND RADON CONCENTRATION.

Applying the two-stage clonal expansion model to epidemiology of lung cancer among uranium miners, it has been revealed that radon acts as a promoting agent facilitating the clonal expansion of already mutated cells. Clonal expansion rate increases non-linearly by radon concentration showing a plateau above a given exposure rate. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Earlier we proposed that progenitor cell hyperplasia may be induced upon chronic radon exposure. The objective of the present study is to ...

MODELLING DSB REPAIR KINETICS FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY PROTON AND CARBON IONS.

Proton and carbon therapy are the main choices of particle therapy for cancer treatment. Particle dose distribution is superior to conventional photon therapy dose distribution due to Bragg peak. However, the basic biology of cellular damage and cell death is not well understood. The aim of this work is to present a mechanistic model of double strand break (DSB) repair that predicts the repair kinetics of damage induced by particles employed in cancer therapy. Monte Carlo Track Damage Simulation (MCDS) was ...

INVESTIGATING VARIABLE RBE IN A 12C MINIBEAM FIELD WITH MICRODOSIMETRY AND GEANT4.

An experimental and simulation-based study was performed on a 12C ion minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) field produced with a clinical broad beam and a brass multi-slit collimator (MSC). Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microdosimeters developed at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) with micron sized sensitive volumes were used to measure the microdosimetric spectra at varying positions throughout the MBRT field and the corresponding dose-mean lineal energies and RBE for 10% cell survival (RBE10) wer...

A BIOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS TO ASSESS X-RAY SENSITIVITY OF HEALTHY AND TUMOUR CELLS.

The mechanobiology is providing novel perspectives in the study of cancer and is contributing to evaluate the cancer responses, from a biophysical point of view, to classical therapeutic approaches- radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we have explored the effects of two doses (4 and 8 Gy) of 6 MeV photons on spreading, focal adhesions, migration and mechanical properties of BALB/c 3T3 and their SV40 transformed equivalent, SVT2. Cell biophysical responses to 4 and 8 Gy were analysed and compared with those ...

MWDS-2016: THE SLOW DISSOLUTION RATE FOR PLUTONIUM NITRATE INTAKES AT THE MAYAK FACILITY.

The slow dissolution rate of material deposited in the lung plays a key role in determining the eventual radiation dose received by the lung. It is therefore of great importance to establish a reliable value for this parameter, to incorporate into the latest Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2016). Disparate values have been obtained for the slow dissolution rate of plutonium nitrate. A volunteer study performed by Public Health England (PHE) and an analysis of United States Transuranium and Uranium Regis...

RADIATION DOSES TO ANAESTHETISTS DURING PROSTATIC ARTERY EMBOLIZATION INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES.

The objective of this study was to assess the radiation doses received by anaesthetists from prostatic artery embolization (PAE) procedures. Ten PAE procedures conducted in a reference hospital in the city of Recife, Brazil were investigated. Occupational dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosemeters which were located next to the eyes, close to the thyroid (over the shielding), on the thorax (under the apron), on the wrist and on the feet of the physician's body. The results showed that the an...

SIMULATION OF OSL AND TLD DOSEMETER RESPONSE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW EXTREMITY DOSEMETERS.

The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München is currently developing a new eye lens dosemeter to be integrated in radiation protection glasses and a new ring dosemeter using a new BeOSL detector element for extremity dosimetry developed by Dosimetrics. In the design process for the new eye lens dosemeter, MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the energy and angular response of new dosemeters before ordering the expensive tools for injection molding. This study describes the...

DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM ESR SIGNAL OF GAMMA-IRRADIATED SODA-LIME GLASS FOR TRIAGE APPLICATION.

In this work, we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron spin resonance (ESR) response of soda-lime samples used for retrospective dosimetry. Six different soda-lime glass batches were evaluated after irradiation. We compared several dose reconstruction techniques: saturation method, subtraction method and g-effective, geff, approach. The differences were observed and discussed. ESR signal responses of soda-lime glass samples to different radiation doses for the triage application...

10-MV SBRT FFF IRRADIATION TECHNIQUE IS ASSOCIATED TO THE LOWEST PERIPHERAL DOSE: THE OUTCOME OF 142 TREATMENT PLANS FOR THE 10 MOST COMMON TUMOUR LOCATIONS.

There is a growing interest in the combined use of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) with Flattening Filter Free (FFF) due to the high local control rates and reduced treatment times, compared to conventionally fractionated treatments. It has been suggested that they may also provide a better radiation protection to radiotherapy patients as a consequence of the expected decrease in peripheral doses. This work aims to determine this reduction in unattended out-of-field regions, where no CT informati...

ESTIMATION OF ORGAN DOSES AND EFFECTIVE DOSES BASED ON IN-PHANTOM DOSIMETRY FOR PAEDIATRIC DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERISATION.

The present study evaluated the organ doses, effective doses and conversion factors from the dose-area product to effective dose in pediatric diagnostic cardiac catheterization performed by in-phantom dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation. The organ and effective doses in 5-y-olds during diagnostic cardiac catheterizations were evaluated using radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters implanted into a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and PCXMC software. The mean effective dose was 3.8 mSv (range: 1.8-7.5 mSv)...


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