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PubMed Journal Database | Radiation research RSS

23:17 EST 20th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 265 from Radiation research

Endogenous Retrovirus Activation as a Key Mechanism of Anti-Tumor Immune Response in Radiotherapy.

The generation of DNA double-strand breaks has historically been taught as the mechanism through which radiotherapy kills cancer cells. Recently, radiation-induced cytosolic DNA release and activation of the cGAS/STING pathway, with ensuing induction of interferon secretion and immune activation, have been recognized as important mechanisms for radiation-mediated anti-tumor efficacy. Here we demonstrate that radiation-induced activation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) also plays a major role in regulating...

A Mail Audit Independent Peer Review System for Dosimetry Verification of a Small Animal Irradiator.

Dedicated precision orthovoltage small animal irradiators have become widely available in the past decade and are commonly used for radiation biology research. However, there is a lack of dosimetric standardization among these irradiators, which affects the reproducibility of radiation-based animal studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a mail-based, independent peer review system to verify dose delivery among institutions using X-RAD 225Cx irradiators (Precision X-Ray, North Branford, CT). A rob...

Cataract Formation and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure from Head Computed Tomography (CT) Scans in Ontario, Canada, 1994-2015.

Ionizing radiation exposure to the lens of the eye is a known cause of cataractogenesis. Administrative data from the Ontario Health Insurance Program was used to examine the association between low-dose radiation exposure from head CT scans and cataract extraction surgery for 16 million Ontarians over a 22-year period (1994-2015). Subjects were grouped based on the number of head CT scans they received, and a Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine if there was a correlation with cataract s...

Determination of the Effective Local Lethal Function for the NanOx Model.

NanOx is a biophysical model recently developed in the context of hadrontherapy to predict the cell survival probability from ionizing radiation. It postulates that this may be factorized into two independent terms describing the cell response to two classes of biological events that occur in the sequence of an irradiation: the local lethal events that occur at nanometric scale and can by themselves induce cell death, and the non-local lethal events that lead to cell death by an effect of accumulation and/o...

Genistein Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Inducing G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis.

New radiosensitizers are urgently needed for radiation therapy patients with localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is refractory to radical surgery. We previously found that genistein, a major soy isoflavone, exerts radioprotective effects on L-02 normal liver cells at low concentrations. Here, we report that 5 μ genistein shows less harm to L-02 cells than HCC cells and that it significantly enhances the radiosensitivity of HCC cells by enhancing DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations and cell cycle ...

Eli J. Glatstein: Inspiring and Provoking Critical Thinking.

Delivery and Effectiveness of Carboplatin via Targeted Delivery Compared to Passive Accumulation of Intravenously Injected Particles Releasing Carboplatin upon Irradiation.

In this study, nanoparticles that release anticancer drugs upon irradiation were developed. Here, MM46 and MM48 tumors in C3He/N mice were irradiated. Furthermore, the intravenously (i.v.) injected nanoparticles were tested for their ability to deliver the anticancer drug, increase the antitumor effect via a synergistic effect of combining targeted anticancer drugs with radiation and decrease adverse effects by localizing the anticancer drug. The nanoparticles were prepared by spraying a mixture of hyaluron...

Identification of Radiation-Dose-Dependent Expressive Genes in Individuals Exposed to External Ionizing Radiation.

For victims of radiological accidents, rapid dose estimation and damage prediction are essential. Administering the gold-standard biodosimetry chromosome aberration assay requires highly skilled individuals and several days of labor; consequently, rapid turnaround is an important concern. Identification of new dose estimation markers and damage-predicting molecules to replace the chromosome aberration assay is crucial to improving the delivery time of medical treatment. Here, we investigated the applicabil...

Radiation Biomarkers: Can Small Businesses Drive Accurate Radiation Precision Medicine?

Radiation therapy is an essential component of cancer treatment. Currently, tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities derived from a general patient population guide radiation treatment. Its outcome could be improved if radiation biomarkers could be incorporated into approaches to treatment. A substantial number of cancer patients suffer from side effects of radiation therapy. These side effects can result in treatment interruption. Such unplanned treatment interruptions not only jeopardize...

Comparative Study on Neutron Irradiation Sensitization Effects of Nucleotide Borate Esters and Several Other Boron Agents.

More effective boron-containing compounds are needed for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Here, borate esters were synthesized by heating and dehydrating nucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), the nucleoside (inosine) or glycerol in the presence of boric acid (HBO). Borate ester products were compared to clinical boron agent boronophenylalanine (BPA) and several other borate esters for neutron-sensitization effects using the A549 cel...

Nailfold Capillaroscopic Findings in an Orthopedic Surgeon: Reversible Abnormalities after the Cessation of Radiation Exposure.

Interventional fluoroscopy is a leading source of occupational ionizing radiation exposure for medical personnel. For example, orthopedic surgeons represent one occupation where the risk of exposure is large. This occupational hazard is the result of a cumulative dose of radiation over time. Adverse health effects induced by low-dose radiation exposure can arise from daily procedures performed over an entire career. Many of the radiation-induced effects that may develop are transient erythema, permanent epi...

Imaging and Dosimetry Study of Inter-fraction Setup Error in a Murine Xenograft Flank Tumor Radiation Model.

Modern small animal irradiation platforms provide for accurate delivery of radiation under 3D image guidance. However, leveraging these improvements currently comes at the cost of lower-throughput experimentation. Herein, we characterized setup accuracy and dosimetric robustness for mock/sham irradiation of a murine xenograft flank tumor model using the X-RAD SmART+ with the vendor-supplied Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (SmART ATP). The chosen beam arrangement was parallel-opposing using a 20 m...

Pet Dogs with Subclinical Acute Radiodermatitis Experience Widespread Somatosensory Sensitization.

Radiation-induced dermatitis (RID) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy. When severe, radiation-associated pain (RAP) can reduce the efficacy of radiotherapy by limiting the radiation dose given, and/or necessitating breaks in treatment. Current RAP mitigation strategies are of limited efficacy. Our long-term goal is to develop a comparative oncology model, in which novel analgesic interventions for RAP can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to validate quantitative end points indicativ...

K Channel Blocker Glibenclamide Prevents Radiation-Induced Lung Injury and Inhibits Radiation-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Endothelial Cells by Increased Ca Influx and Subsequent PKC Activation.

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy, which compromises patients' quality of life. Recent studies revealed that early vascular injury, especially microvascular damage, played a central role in the development of RILI. For this reason, early vascular protection is essential for RILI therapy. The ATP-sensitive K (K) channel is an ATP-dependent K channel with multiple subunits. The protective role of the K channel in vascular injury has been demonstra...

Generation of a Transcriptional Radiation Exposure Signature in Human Blood Using Long-Read Nanopore Sequencing.

In the event of a large-scale event leading to acute ionizing radiation exposure, high-throughput methods would be required to assess individual dose estimates for triage purposes. Blood-based gene expression is a broad source of biomarkers of radiation exposure which have great potential for providing rapid dose estimates for a large population. Time is a crucial component in radiological emergencies and the shipment of blood samples to relevant laboratories presents a concern. In this study, we performed ...

Enhancement of Cytotoxicity of Enediyne Compounds by Hyperthermia: Effects of Various Metal Complexes on Tumor Cells.

Enediyne natural products are a class of compounds that were recognized for their potential as chemotherapeutic agents many years ago, but found to be highly cytotoxic due to their propensity for low thermal activation. Bergman cyclization of the enediyne moiety produces a diradical intermediate, and may subsequently induce DNA damage and account for the extreme cytotoxicity. While difficulties in controlling the thermal cyclization reaction have limited the clinical use of cyclic enediynes, we have previou...

Comparison of Radiation Dose Reconstruction Methods to Investigate Late Adverse Effects of Radiotherapy for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Quantification of radiation dose to normal tissue during radiotherapy is critical for assessing risk for radiotherapy-related late effects, including subsequent neoplasms (SNs). Case-control studies of SNs typically reconstruct absorbed radiation dose to the specific SN location using individual treatment parameters. A simplified method estimates the maximum prescribed target dose to the body region in which the SN arises. We compared doses and risk estimates from these methods using data from case-control ...

Effect of Heterogeneity in Background Incidence on Inference about the Solid-Cancer Radiation Dose Response in Atomic Bomb Survivors by Cologne Radiat Res 2019; 192:388-398.

Effects of Brain Irradiation in Immune-Competent and Immune-Compromised Mouse Models.

Patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOXs) closely recapitulate primary human glioblastoma (GBM) tumors in terms of histology and genotype. Compared to other mouse strains, NOD- IL2Rgamma (NSG) mice show excellent tumor take rates, which makes them an ideal host for PDOXs. However, NSG mice harbor a mutation in the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), which renders them relatively radiosensitive. This has been a frequently voiced concern in studies involving ionizing radiation. I...

Impact of the PrC-210 Radioprotector Molecule on Cancer Deaths in p53-Deficient Mice.

Radiation-induced cancer is an ongoing and significant problem, with sources that include clinics worldwide in which 3.1 billion radiology exams are performed each year, as well as a variety of other scenarios such as space travel and nuclear cleanup. These radiation exposures are typically anticipated, and the exposure is typically well below 1 Gy. When radiation-induced (actually ROS-induced) DNA mutation is prevented, then so too are downstream radiation-induced cancers. Currently, there is no protection...

UVC-Emitting LuPO:Pr Nanoparticles Decrease Radiation Resistance of Hypoxic Cancer Cells.

Radiation-resistant hypoxic tumor areas continue to present a major limitation for successful tumor treatment. To overcome this radiation resistance, an oxygen-independent treatment is proposed using UVC-emitting LuPO:Pr nanoparticles (NPs) and X rays. The uptake of the NPs as well as their effect on cell proliferation was investigated on A549 lung cancer cells by using inverted time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the combined treatment of X rays and LuPO...

Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrion in Proton Microbeam Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.

It is well known that mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play important roles in radiation response, but their functions in radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) are largely unclear. In this study, we found that when a small portion of cells in a population of human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells were precisely irradiated through either the nuclei or cytoplasm with counted microbeam protons, the yield of micronuclei (MN) and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nonirrad...

Monitoring Physiological Changes in Neutron-Exposed Normal Mouse Brain Using FDG-PET and DW-MRI.

We monitored a physiological response in a neutron-exposed normal mouse brain using two imaging tools, [F]fluro-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography ([F]FDG-PET) and diffusion weighted-magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), as an imaging biomarker. We measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DW-MRI and standardized uptake value (SUV) of [F]FDG-PET, which indicated changes in the cellular environment for neutron irradiation. This approach was sensitive enough to detect cell changes that wer...

Comprehensive Analysis of the Kinetics of Radiation-Induced Lymphocyte Loss in Patients Treated with External Beam Radiation Therapy.

Radiation-induced lymphopenia (RIL) is associated with worse survival in patients with solid tumors, as well as lower response rates to checkpoint inhibitors. While single-fraction total-body irradiation is known to result in exponential decreases in the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), the kinetics of lymphocyte loss after focal fractionated exposures have not previously been characterized. In the current study, lymphocyte loss kinetics was analyzed among patients undergoing focal fractionated radiotherapy...

Plasma D-Dimer Levels are Elevated in Radiation Oncology Patients.

D-dimer plasma levels were evaluated to determine whether they are altered by radiation. D-dimer levels were measured in radiation oncology patients, who were diagnosed with prostate, breast or lung cancer, or leukemia, as well as in healthy subjects serving as controls. Blood samples from radiotherapy patients were taken at three different time points: pre-, on- and post-radiotherapy. For the patients, considered together, differences between the D-dimer levels at these three time points compared to contro...


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