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PubMed Journal Database | Reproduction (Cambridge, England) RSS

05:20 EST 22nd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 183 from Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

Murine germ cell-specific disruption of Ift172 causes defects in spermiogenesis and male fertility.

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. IFT172 is a component of the IFT complex. Global disruption of mouse Ift172 gene caused typical phenotypes of ciliopathy. Mouse Ift172 gene appears to translate two major proteins; the full-length protein is highly expressed in the tissues enriched in cilia, and the smaller 130 kDa one is only abundant in the testis. In male germ cells, IFT172 is highly expressed in the m...

Localization of sperm intracellular Ca2+ keeps fertilizability in the newt vas deferens.

Sperm intracellular Ca2+ is crucial for the induction of sperm-egg interaction, but little is known about the significance of Ca2+ maintenance prior to induction. In sperm of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster, intracellular Ca2+ is localized to the midpiece during storage in the vas deferens, while extracellular Ca2+ is influxed in modified Steinberg's salt solution to promote a spontaneous acrosome reaction related to the decline of sperm quality. In the present study, sperm from the vas deferens were loaded wi...

Human BMP8A suppresses luteinization of rat granulosa cells via the SMAD1/5/8 pathway.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are known to play an indispensable role in preventing the precocious luteinization of granulosa cells within growing ovarian follicles. In this study, we found that the transcripts of BMP8 genes are enriched in the ovaries of humans and rodents. When analyzing transcriptomic datasets obtained from human mature granulosa cells, we further found that the BMP8 transcripts not only show the highest abundance among the searchable BMP-related ligands but also decrease significan...

Inflammaging is associated with shifted macrophage ontogeny and polarization in the aging mouse ovary.

The fertility of women declines sharply after age 35 and is essentially lost upon menopause at age 51. The ovary plays an important part in aging-associated changes in women's physiology since it is an essential component of both the reproductive and endocrine systems. Several previous studies in mice have shown that the ovarian tissue goes through drastic changes over the course of aging and exhibits signs of aging-associated chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which may contribute to the marked decline o...

Pregnancy Status Alters IL-21-mediated Effects on Murine B Lymphocytes.

A favorable outcome of pregnancy depends greatly on an adequate balance of immune protection and fetal tolerance at the fetomaternal interface. IL-21 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated to altered immune responses in auto-immune diseases. IL-21 has pleiotropic functions, including induction of Th17 T cells, inhibition of Treg development, and modulation antibody responses of B lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms of IL21 have been associated to poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the mechanism of IL-21 ac...

Hypoxia: involved but not essential for endometrial breakdown in mouse menstural-like model.

Menstruation is a specific physiological phenomenon that occurs in women. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. According to the classical theory, tissue hypoxia resulting from vasoconstriction of the spiral arteries after progesterone (P4) withdrawal initiates the breakdown of the endometrium at the earliest stage of menstruation. However, this theory has been challenged by previous studies that have questioned the function and even the existence of hypoxia during mens...

Bang goes the detonator plot!

CEP215 and AURKA regulate spindle pole focusing and aMTOC organization in mouse oocytes.

Acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers (aMTOCs) play a critical role in stable meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes, necessary for accurate chromosome segregation. Yet, there is a limited understanding of the essential regulatory components of these unique MTOCs. In somatic cells, CEP215 (Centrosomal Protein 215) serves as an important regulator of centrosome maturation and spindle organization. Here, we assessed whether it has a similar function in mouse oocytes. CEP215 was detected in oocyte lysates an...

Role of Angiotensin-(1-7) via Mas receptor in human sperm motility and acrosome reaction.

Rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been involved in sperm function, even so, little is known about the implication of one of the RAS axis formed by Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] and Mas receptor. Hence, in the present work, we focused on elucidating the function of the Mas receptor in human sperm. We analyzed the expression and localization of Mas receptor in human sperm and we observed if its activation is able to modulate the sperm motility of normal motility and/or asthenozoospermic patients, as well as...

IL-2 and IL-27 synergistically promote growth and invasion of endometriotic stromal cells by maintaining the balance of IFN-γ and IL-10 in endometriosis.

Immune cells and cytokines have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the production and role of cytokines of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in the progress of endometriosis have remained to be fully elucidated. The present study reported that interferon (IFN)-γ levels and the percentage of IFN-γ+CD4+ cells was significantly increased in the peritoneal fluid (PF) at the early stage and maintained at a higher level at the advanced stage of endometriosis; furthermore, interleuk...

Sixty years of reproduction.

Impact of oxidative stress on male and female germ cells; implications for fertility.

Male and female germ lines are vulnerable to oxidative stress. In spermatozoa, such stress triggers a lipid peroxidation cascade that culminates in the generation of electrophilic lipid aldehydes that bind to DNA and a raft of proteins involved in the delivery of functionally competent cells. One set of targets for these aldehydes are the proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. When this interaction occurs, mitochondrial ROS generation is enhanced leading to the sustained generation of oxida...

Lessons from bioengineering the ovarian follicle: a personal perspective.

The ovarian follicle and its maturation captivated my imagination and inspired my scientific journey - what we know now about this remarkable structure is captured in this invited review. In the past decade, our knowledge of the ovarian follicle expanded dramatically as cross-disciplinary collaborations brought new perspectives to bear, ultimately leading to the development of extragonadal follicles as model systems with significant clinical implications. Follicle maturation in vitro in an 'artificial' ovar...

Pre-ovulatory intercellular regulation of miR-125a-3p within mouse ovarian follicles.

miR-125a-3p, a post-transcription regulator of Fyn kinase, is expressed in mouse pre-ovulatory follicles; its expression within the follicle decreases towards ovulation. Our aim was to follow the synthesis of miR-125a-3p and regulation of its expression in all follicular compartments, focusing on intercellular communication. Mural granulosa cells (GCs) or cumulus cells (CCs) were transfected with either scrambled-miR (negative control) or miR-125a-3p-mimic. Freshly isolated GCs or CCs were incubated over-ni...

The involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A in trophoblast cell function.

Abnormal growth and migration of trophoblast cells is one of the main causes of spontaneous abortion. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) plays an important role in trophoblast cell growth and migration; however, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we firstly confirmed that eIF5A knockdown reduced human chorionic trophoblast HTR8 cells viability, proliferation, and migration. Next, we sought to systematically identify the genes regulated by eIF5A and observed changes in t...

Single and combined effects of cisplatin and doxorubicin on the human and mouse ovary in vitro.

Chemotherapy drugs are administered to patients using combination regimens, and as such the possibility of multiplicative effects between drugs need to be investigated. This study examines the individual and combined effects of the chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin on the human ovary. Although cisplatin and doxorubicin are known to affect female fertility, there is limited information about their direct effects on the human ovary, and none examining the possibility of combined, multiplicative eff...

Sperm enter glands of preovulatory bovine endometrial explants and initiate inflammation.

We previously reported that sperm binding to cultured monolayers of bovine uterine epithelial cells induces an acute inflammatory response involving the Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling pathway. This response serves to clear the uterus of sperm and thereby prepares the endometrium for implantation. The endometrium is lined by surface epithelial cells; however, epithelial cells also line uterine glands. To investigate the source of the immune response, we used an explant model. Explants of bovine endometr...

Decidual Small Extracellular Vesicles induce Trophoblast Invasion by upregulating N-cadherin.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication involved in successful establishment of a pregnancy. Human decidual stromal cells play a key role in regulating trophoblast invasion. Nevertheless, the regulatory functions of decidual stromal cells-derived sEVs in human trophoblast cells are still unclear. In this study, primary human decidual stromal cells were isolated and immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line (HESCs) were decidualised into human decidual...

The mTOR Pathway in Reproduction: From Gonadal Function to Developmental Coordination.

Reproduction depends on many factors, from gamete quality to placenta formation, to fetal development. The mTOR pathway is emerging as a major player that integrates several cellular processes in response to a variety of environmental cues that are relevant in many aspects of reproduction. This review provides a general overview, summarizing the involvement of the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) in integrating signaling pathways, sensing environmental status, and managing physiological processes inhe...

Elevated Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in Follicular Fluid of PCOS Patients.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women usually accompanied by lipid metabolic disorders. However, it remains unknown whether arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites in follicular fluid (FF) were altered in PCOS patients. This study was intended to measure the levels of AA and its metabolites in the FF of non-obese PCOS patients that underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to explore the possible causes of the alterations. Thirty-nine non-obese w...

miR-499 promotes immature porcine Sertoli cell growth by the PI3K/AKT pathway by targeting the PTEN gene.

Sertoli cells are indispensable for normal spermatogenesis and increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the regulation of Sertoli cell growth. However, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in Sertoli cells of domestic animals have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we mainly investigated the regulatory roles of miR-499 in immature porcine Sertoli cells. The results showed that miR-499 was mainly located in the basement section of seminiferous tubules ...

Preimplantation development in ungulates: a "ménage à quatre" scenario.

In ungulates, early embryonic development differs dramatically from that of mice and humans and is characterized by an extended period of pre- and peri-implantation development in utero. After hatching from the zona pellucida, the ungulate blastocyst will stay free in the uterus for many days before implanting within the uterine wall. During this protracted peri-implantation period, an intimate dialogue between the embryo and the uterus is established through a complex series of paracrine signals. The blast...

Nicotinamide mononucleotide does not protect the ovarian reserve from cancer treatments.

Primordial follicle oocytes are extremely vulnerable to DNA damage caused by exogenous agents, such as those commonly used to treat cancer. Consequently, female cancer patients often have diminished ovarian reserve, which if severe enough, can cause premature ovarian failure and early menopause. Advances in cancer therapies have resulted in significantly improved cancer survival rates, therefore it is becoming increasingly important to devise strategies to protect the ovarian reserve from cancer treatments,...

Reproduction Down Under.

Australia is home to a unique assembly of mammals - the marsupials and monotremes. Despite this uniqueness, they have been largely ignored by the biomedical scientific community, and yet study of marsupials has contributed to modern research on reproduction, development, evolution, conservation, molecular and comparative genomics. My lifetime passion for these long-neglected Australian fauna has led to unexpected discoveries and insights that challenged assumptions and opened up new areas of international r...

Blastocyst transfer in mice alters the placental transcriptome and growth.

Assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are becoming increasingly common. Therefore, how these procedures influence gene regulation and feto-placental development are important to explore. Here, we assess the effects of blastocyst transfer on mouse placental growth and transcriptome. C57Bl/6 blastocysts were transferred into uteri of B6D2F1 pseudopregnant females and dissected at embryonic day 10.5 for analysis. Compared to non-transferred controls, placentas from transferred conceptuses weighed less even ...


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