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PubMed Journal Database | Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) RSS

03:37 EDT 25th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 52 from Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)

Influence of environmental and seasonal factors on microbial contamination levels in clam production areas in southern Tunisia: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus and norovirus.

To study the influence of environmental and biological factors on levels of contamination by Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus in clam production areas, an epidemiological study was conducted on 791 samples of live clams (Ruditapes decussatus), 539 of which were sent for bacteriological analysis and 252 for detection of norovirus and HAV. These samples were collected in different production areas in the Sfax region of southern Tunisia over four consecutive years, from ...

Characteristics of poultry farms and assessment of their level of contamination by Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in the towns of N'Djamena and Doba in Chad.

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of poultry farm sand the level of contamination of chickens farmed in the towns of N'Djamena and Doba by Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Information, based on both formal and informal surveys, was collected from ten broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena and 16 traditional farms in Doba, mainly small establishments with low levels of investment. A total of 1,090 samples were taken from these farms over three periods, each of three months, f...

Epidemiological survey of vector-borne infections in equids from northern Tunisia.

Leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum infection) and piroplasmoses (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections) are vector-borne diseases with significant economic and public health impacts. Despite their importance, there is a lack of data concerning these infections in equids from Tunisia. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of L. infantum, T. equi and B. caballi in 104 equids from northern Tunisia. The authors reported for the first time on the seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania a...

The use of dynamic prevalence maps to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in broiler flocks in the Valencian Community, Spain.

The aim of this study was to design and implement a dynamic prevalence map for managing the data collected within the framework of the Salmonella spp. National control plan in broiler flocks, using a data set from the Valencian Community, Spain. Such a map would be a useful tool for veterinarians seeking to define control options. The development of the mapping tool for this study involved three main phases: data collection, data analysis and data representation. The data used were obtained from the results...

Isolation and analysis of the molecular epidemiology and zoonotic significance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in domestic and wildlife ruminants from three states in India.

The majority of tuberculosis cases in ruminants are caused by Mycobacterium bovis (MB). However, in this study, the authors reported the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) from bovine milk, nasal swabs and post-mortem tissue samples (n = 841) collected from cattle and buffaloes in the states of Telangana, Maharashtra and Gujarat in India in the period from 2010 to 2015. The isolates (n = 7) were confirmed as Mycobacterium due to their growth characteristics and colony morphology in a commercial li...

Epidemiological study of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia, April-May 2015.

A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions in Saudi Arabia to investigate the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during April and May2015. Serum and nasal swab samples were tested for MERS-CoV antibodies andribonucleic acid (RNA) using a recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), respectively. The overall MERS-CoV antibody se...

Spatial distribution and risk factors for equine infectious anaemia in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

The prevalence of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) in the three biomes of the state of Mato Grosso (Amazon, Cerrado and Pantanal) was estimated. Serum samples were collected from 3,858 equines in 1,067 herds between Septemberand December 2014. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay was used to detect EIA virus antibodies, and if a herd contained a seropositive animal itwas classified as a focus. The prevalence rates were 17.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.9-19.8%) for herds and 6.6% (95% CI: 5.8-7.5%...

Seroprevalence and risk factors for peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Djibouti.

Despite the occurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in all other countries in the Horn of Africa, which engage in free animal movement, to date, PPR has not been reported in Djibouti. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of PPR and its associated risk factors in sheep and goats in that country. A cross-sectional method was used with proportional sampling to allocate the number of small ruminants to be sampled from each of the country's regions (Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djib...

Qualitative risk assessment for the transmission of African swine fever to Thailand from Italy, 2015.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease that infects porcine species and has a major impact on the pig industry. Thailand imported approximately4 million kilograms of pig products from Italy in 2015 during the same time as an ASF outbreak was occurring on the island of Sardinia in Italy, thereby posing a potential risk of introduction of ASF virus (ASFV) into Thailand. To estimate whether or not importing pig products from Italy is a risk for Thailand and to identify gaps in control and pre...

Study on seroprevalence and serotyping of foot and mouth disease in Chad.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all Artiodactyla. Seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) exist. In Chad, although FMD is included in the list of diseases monitored by the Chadian Animal Disease Surveillance Network (REPIMAT), the epidemiological situation remains unclear. A serological survey was conducted in the cattle population in eight of the nine administrative regions of the country (those regions with the highest cattle densities), ...

Proposed attributes of national wildlife health programmes.

Wildlife health is important for conservation, healthy ecosystems, sustainable development and biosecurity. It presents unique challenges for national programme governance and delivery because wildlife health not only crosses jurisdictional responsibilities and authorities but also inherently spans multiple sectors of expertise. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) encourages its Members to have wildlife disease monitoring and notification systems. Where national wildlife health surveillance progr...

The experience of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia ring trials in Botswana.

The Botswana National Veterinary Laboratory (BNVL) has conducted ring trials (proficiency testing) on an annual basis since 2010. Proficiency testing is carried out to evaluate the ability of veterinary laboratories to perform serological complement fixation tests (CFTs) and molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). In this paper, the authors discuss the experience gained and the lessons learned in coordinating these ring trials over a per...

Bayesian assessment of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies in bovine sera.

Infections due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are endemic in most cattleproducing countries throughout the world and bovine viral diarrhoea is considered a transboundary disease. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are vaccination, biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals and surveillance. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity (Se) and the specificity (Sp) of two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on selected immune-d...

The global proliferation of high-containment biological laboratories: understanding the phenomenon and its implications.

Disease-causing pathogens have been with humanity for as long as the species has existed, but the world has changed. The human population is increasing and becoming more globalised. Meanwhile, the international system remains unstable and biotechnology is advancing at a breakneck speed. Humans are coming into contact with new and re-emerging pathogens as they spread into previously uninhabited environments. Pathogens play an increasingly global role, and infectious disease is becoming less confined by geogr...

Outbreak investigation: how to prevent laboratory contamination during high-throughput testing.

This is particularly important for outbreaks of highly contagious animal diseases. Efficient and correct testing as well as the reduction of technical breakdowns should be addressed by a laboratory contingency plan specially designed for the use of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), i.e. PCR or reverse transcription PCR ([RT]-PCR) or the high-throughput quantitative real-time form of these tests([RT]-qPCR). Problems with contamination during outbreak investigations can negatively impact reliable diagnostics...

Population dynamics of ticks infesting horses in north-west Tunisia.

A preliminary study was carried out to examine the population dynamics of ticks on 24 pure Arabian horses. The horses were monitored monthly over one year in the Ghardimaou region of north-west Tunisia. A total of 120 adult ticks were collected and identified, leading to the estimation of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to a single genus (Hyalomma) and three species: H. scupense (59%), H. marginatum (28%) and H. excavatum (13%) (p < 0.001). The mean infestation prevalence was 29.5%;...

Survey of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat herds in the Thrace region of Turkey.

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) was detected for the first time on the European continent in the Thrace region of Turkey in 2002 following outbreaks of an unusually severe respiratory disease in goats. Mycoplasma capricolums ubspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp), the causative agent, was identified in many infected herds throughout the region by serological, bacteriological and molecular biological techniques. However, as no quantitative data on the prevalence and distribution of the disease have been ...

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against field and reference strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis strains.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an endemic disease in animals and humans in Egypt. This study aims to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs, using the microplate Alamar blue assay. The AgNPs were chemically synthesised and their form and size were characterised by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.The reference strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M...

Review of bovine brucellosis surveillance in Europe in 2015.

Bovine brucellosis is a major zoonosis and is responsible for significant reproductive disorders and production losses in cattle. Surveillance and control are regulated at the European level with specific conditions to obtain and maintain the officially free status, which facilitates access to export markets. These European standards allow for harmonisation in brucellosis surveillance and diagnosis while leaving some flexibility to countries in the choice of measures to meet the desired objectives. This stu...

Accreditation and evaluation of veterinary medical institutes - a Pakistani perspective.

The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) is an independent, autonomous and constitutionally established institution that provides primary funding for higher education in Pakistan, which it also oversees, regulates and accredits. According to the HEC Charter: 'the HEC of Pakistan may set up national or regional evaluation councils or authorise any existing council/or similar body to carry out accreditation of institutions including their departments, facilities and disciplines by giving them appropr...

Assessment of the core competencies of veterinarians: implications for policy decisions in India.

he objectives of this study were two-fold - to assess the technical competencies of veterinarians and their application, and to investigate veterinarians' activities and appropriate ways for them to acquire and enhance competencies. The studywas undertaken in three South Indian states: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana. The survey data, collected in 2015-2016 from nine districts in the three states, came from in-depth questionnaires completed by 270 veterinary assistant surgeons (VASs). The key survey...

Validation of an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, due to the existence of a wide variety of Toxoplasma gondii hosts, which include several domestic animal species. In Cuba, there is sustained production of the Bubalus species, which is highly adaptable and disease resistant, although it has been identified as a reservoir for a range of aetiological agents. Several countries have reported buffaloes as the intermediate host of T. gondii, noting the need to carry out epidemiological studies an...

Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causi...

Social and economic aspects of aquatic animal health.

Aquaculture is an increasingly important source of animal protein for a growing global population. Disease is a major constraint to production, with resultant socio-economic impacts for individuals, communities and economies which rely on aquaculture. Aquatic animal health is also strongly influenced by human factors, ranging from international trade regulations to the behaviours of individuals working in aquaculture. This article summarises the human factors associated with aquaculture production using int...

Developing a framework to assess the costeffectiveness of COMPARE - a global platform for the exchange of sequence-based pathogen data.

Analysing the genomic data of pathogens with the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an increasingly important part of disease outbreak investigations and helps guide responses. While this technology has already been successfully employed to elucidate and control disease outbreaks, wider implementation of NGS also depends on its cost-effectiveness. COMPARE - short for 'Collaborative Management Platform for detection and Analyses of (Re-) emerging and foodborne outbreaks' - is a major project, funded...


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