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PubMed Journal Database | Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports RSS

11:28 EST 22nd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 249 from Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports

Mild hypohydration impairs cycle ergometry performance in the heat: A blinded study.

The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of mild hypohydration on exercise performance with subjects blinded to their hydration status. Eleven male cyclists (weight 75.8±6.4 kg, VO : 64.9±5.6 mL·kg ·min , body fat: 12.0±5.8%, Power : 409±40 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, consisting of 20-min steady-state cycling (50% peak power output), each followed by a 5-km time-trial at 3% grade. Following a familiarization trial subjects completed the experimental trials, in coun...

The team effect on doping in professional male road cycling (2005-2016).

This article questions organizations' (clubs, teams, etc.) responsibility in doping use from the case of anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs) sanctioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale in professional cycling. We built a database with 271 caught riders among 10551 professional riders employed from 2005 to 2016 in the three first world divisions. We developed a time-discrete event history model with a multilevel perspective to consider if the ADRV is related to the characteristic of a rider's career pat...

The Role of Pre-Diagnostic Data in Injury Epidemiology in Pre-professional Dancers.

Pre-professional dance training starts at very early ages, on a highly demanding environment placing students at significant risk for injury. Injury management and prevention are a matter of concern. Given the constant interchangeability of risk factors, identifying injury patterns may prove to be equally as important. Data looking back from the time of injury through context-specific approaches, are missing.

Razor hamstring curl and Nordic hamstring exercise architectural adaptations: impact of exercise selection and intensity.

To investigate knee flexor strength and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) architectural adaptations following two different Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) interventions and one razor hamstring curl (RHC) intervention.

Comparison of gluteus medius and minimus activity during gait in people with hip osteoarthritis and matched controls.

The gluteal muscles act as stabilisers of the hip joint and are important for the maintenance of hip function. Atrophy and weakness of the gluteal muscles has been identified in people with hip OA, but it is not known whether these muscles also exhibit altered activity patterns. The aim of this study was to compare gluteal muscle activity in people with hip OA and healthy older adults. Fine wire intramuscular electrodes were inserted into the three segments of gluteus medius (GMed) and two segments of glute...

Detraining effect on overweight/obese women after high-intensity interval training in hypoxia.

Promising benefits on fat mass and biochemical components may be reported after applying programs of cyclic hypoxia and HIIT.

Development of physical fitness performance in young Swiss men from 2006 to 2015.

From 1980 to 2000, physical fitness decreased and body mass index (BMI) increased in the population of many industrialised countries. Little is known about these trends after the year 2000. The present study aimed to investigate physical fitness performance, physical activity (PA) behaviour and BMI of young, male Swiss adults between 2006 and 2015. For this purpose, results from the Swiss Armed Forces mandatory recruitment were used. 306,746 male conscripts provided complete fitness test data, mean±SD (ran...

Isometric training and long-term adaptations; effects of muscle length, intensity and intent: A systematic review.

Isometric training is used in the rehabilitation and physical preparation of athletes, special populations and the general public. However, little consensus exists regarding training guidelines for a variety of desired outcomes. Understanding the adaptive response to specific loading parameters would be of benefit to practitioners. The objective of this systematic review, therefore, was to detail the medium to long-term adaptations of different types of isometric training on morphological, neurological and ...

Cytokine, glycemic and insulinemic responses to an acute bout of games-based activity in adolescents.

An acute bout of endurance exercise in adults stimulates a same-day anti-inflammatory response which may affect low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance and benefit cardio-metabolic health. The anti-inflammatory responses to intermittent games-based exercise and to exercise in young people beyond 2-h post-exercise are unknown. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine the anti-inflammatory, glycemic and insulinemic response to games-based activity in adolescents. Following ethical ap...

Effects of oral curcumin ingested before or after eccentric exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation.

We examined the effect of curcumin (CUR) ingestion before or after exercise on changes in muscle damage and inflammatory responses after exercise. We conducted two parallel experiments with different CUR ingestion timings using a double-blind crossover. In Exp. 1, ten healthy men ingested 180 mg∙day of CUR or placebo (PLA) 7 days before exercise. In Exp. 2, ten other healthy men ingested 180 mg∙day of CUR or PLA 7 days after exercise. They performed 30 maximal isokinetic (120°∙s ) eccentric contracti...

Neurovascular structures in human vastus lateralis muscle and the ideal biopsy site.

A density model of neurovascular structures was generated from 28 human vastus lateralis muscles isolated from embalmed cadavers. The intramuscular portion of arteries, veins and nerves was dissected, traced on transparencies and digitised before adjustment to an average muscle shape using Procrustes analysis to generate density distributions for the relative positions of these structures. The course of arteries, veins and nerves was highly variable between individual muscles. Nevertheless, a zone of lower ...

Variable, but not free-weight, resistance back squat exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up.

Studies examining acute, high-speed movement performance enhancement following intense muscular contractions (frequently called 'post-activation potentiation'; PAP) often impose a limited warm-up, compromizing external validity. In the present study the effects on countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance of back squat exercises performed with or without elastic bands during warm-up were compared. After familiarization, fifteen active men visited the laboratory on two occasions under randomized, count...

A method to standardize the blood flow restriction pressure by an elastic cuff.

Blood flow restriction training using a practical (non-pneumatic) elastic-cuff has recently increased in popularity. However, a criticism of this method is that the pressure applied and the amount of blood flow restriction induced is unknown. The aim was to quantify blood flow following the application of an elastic-cuff and compare that to what is observed using a more traditional pressurized nylon-cuff. Thirty-five young participants (16 men and 19 women) visited the laboratory once for testing. In a rand...

Training and match volume and injury in adolescents playing multiple contact team sports: a prospective cohort study.

Training and competition loads have emerged as valuable injury risk factors but very few studies have explored injury outcomes in adolescent athletes. The aims of this study were to describe injuries and to explore the relationship between training and match load volumes and injury in adolescent athletes participating in multiple contact team sports. One hundred and three male youth rugby athletes aged 14 to 16 years from 8 rugby union teams were prospectively monitored during a season for weekly training a...

Spinal Injury Analysis for Typical Snowboarding Backward Falls.

Spinal injury (SPI) often causes death and disability in snow-sport accidents. SPIs often result from spinal compression and flexion, but the injury risks due to over flexion have not been studied. Back protectors are used to prevent SPIs but the testing standards do not evaluate the flexion-extension resistance. To investigate SPI risks and to better define back-protector specifications, this study quantified the flexion-extension range of motions (ROMs) of the thoracic-lumbar spine during typical snowboar...

Effects of eccentric versus concentric contractions of the biceps brachii on intracortical inhibition and facilitation.

Differences in the neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) contractions exist; however, the acute effects of fatiguing muscle contractions on intracortical and corticospinal excitability are not well understood. Therefore, we compared maximal ECC and CON contractions of the right biceps brachii (BB) muscle for changes in corticospinal excitability, short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) up to 1 h post-exercise. Fourtee...

Aerobic fitness thresholds to define poor cardiometabolic health in children and youth.

Aerobic fitness is an apparent candidate for screening children and youth for poor cardiometabolic health and future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Yet, age- and sex-specific cut points for children and youth determined using a maximal protocol and directly measured peak oxygen consumption (VO ) does not exist. We used a nationally representative sample of 1462 Norwegian children and youth (788 boys and 674 girls aged 8.7-10.4 years and 14.7-16.7 years) who in 2005-2006 performed a maximal cycle ergo...

Glossopharyngeal Insufflation and Kissing Papillary Muscles.

Breath-hold diving has increasingly established itself within the leisure sector as near-natural sport. In parallel, a number of competitive disciplines have developed. To reach greater depths various breathing maneuvers are employed one of them being glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI), for which air is repetitively "pumped" into the lungs in order to increase the intrathoracic air volume. As intrapulmonary pressure is considerable increased in parallel, venous return is impeded, leading to incomplete filli...

Impairment of left atrial mechanics does not contribute to the reduction in stroke volume after active ascent to 4559 m.

Hypoxia challenges left ventricular (LV) function due to reduced energy supply. Conflicting results exist whether high-altitude exposure impairs LV diastolic function and thus contributes to the high altitude-induced increase in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and reduction in stroke volume (SV). This study aimed to assess LV diastolic function, LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and LA mechanics using comprehensive echocardiographic imaging in healthy volunteers at 4559m. Fifty subjects performed ...

Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.

Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO max) in the general population are limited.

Test-retest variability of VO2max using total-capture indirect calorimetry reveals linear relationship of VO and Power.

This study aimed to analyze the intra-individual variation in VO2max of human subjects using total-capture and free-flow indirect calorimetry. Twenty-seven men (27±5 year; VO2max 49-79 ml•kg •min ) performed two maximal exertion tests (CPETs) on a cycle ergometer, separated by a 7±2 day interval. VO2 and VCO2 were assessed using an indirect calorimeter (Omnical) with total capture of exhalation in a free-flow airstream. Thirteen subjects performed a third maximal exertion test using a breath-by-breath...

Facilitators to support the implementation of injury prevention training in youth handball: A concept mapping approach.

There is a need for research to identify effective implementation strategies for injury prevention training within real-world community sports. The aim of this ecological participatory study was to identify facilitators, among stakeholders at multiple levels, that could help injury prevention training become part of regular training routines in youth team handball. Concept mapping, a mixed-method approach for qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis, was used. Stakeholders (n=196) of two c...

Neuroplastic Changes in ACLR Patients from Neuromechanical Decoupling.

The purpose of this study was to identify how the brain simultaneously perceives proprioceptive input during joint loading in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients, when compared to healthy controls. Seventeen ACLR patients (ACLR) and seventeen controls (CONT) were tested for the somatosensory cortical activation using electroencephalography (EEG) while measuring knee laxity using a knee arthrometer. The relationship between cortical activation and joint laxity within group was also exam...

Dynamic stretching is not detrimental to neuromechanical and sensorimotor performance of ankle plantarflexors.

The acute effects of two dynamic stretching (DS) protocols on changes in the ankle range of motion (RoM), neuromechanical and sensorimotor properties of the plantarflexor muscle group were examined. Eighteen participants received slow (SDS) or fast dynamic stretching (FDS) on two separate days. Outcome measures were assessed pre- and 2 minutes post-interventions, and included maximum dorsiflexion angle, maximum isometric torque at neutral ankle position, maximum concentric and eccentric torques, force match...

Towards a Better Assessment of Perceived Social Influence: The Relative Role of Significant Others on Young Athletes.

The purpose of this three-study paper was to develop and validate the Perceived Social Influence in Sport Scale-2 (PSISS-2) that aimed to resolve the limitations of PSISS-1 in assessing the relative social influence of significant others in youth sport. In Study 1, a pool of 60 items generated from revisiting a qualitative dataset about significant others of young athletes were examined by two expert panel reviews in terms of content validity, clarity, coverage, and age-appropriateness, leading to the devel...


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