PubMed Journal Database | Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports RSS

11:15 EDT 26th April 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 172 from Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports

Elite swimmers' internal markers trajectories in ecological training conditions.

This study examined the trajectories of elite swimmers' recovery-stress states and cardiac vagal-related markers during a three-month training period preceding the national championship and their within-person relationships with perceived control.

Investigation of knee control as a lower extremity injury risk factor: A prospective study in youth football.

This prospective study in youth football examined the relationship between frontal plane knee projection angle (FPKPA) during the single-leg squat and sustaining an acute lower extremity injury or acute non-contact lower extremity injury. Secondly, side-to-side asymmetry in FPKPA and sex as injury risk factors were explored. In addition, we investigated the influence of age, sex and leg dominance on the FPKPA. A total of 558 youth football players (U11 to U14), participated in the single-leg squat test and ...

Remodeling of muscle fibres approaching the human myotendinous junction.

The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is at high risk of strain injuries, due to high amounts of energy that is transferred through this structure. The risk of strain injury is significantly reduced by heavy resistance training (HRT), indicating a remodeling capacity of MTJ. We investigated the degree of remodeling of muscle fibres near the human MTJ.

Kinetic demands of sprinting shift across the acceleration phase: novel analysis of entire force waveforms.

A novel approach of analysing complete ground reaction force waveforms rather than discrete kinetic variables can provide new insight to sprint biomechanics. This study aimed to understand how these waveforms are associated with better performance across entire sprint accelerations. Twenty-eight male track and field athletes (100-m personal best times: 10.88 to 11.96 s) volunteered to participate. Ground reaction forces produced across 24 steps were captured during repeated (two to five) maximal-effort spri...

Interface pressure, perceptual and mean arterial pressure responses to different blood flow restriction systems.

This study examined the cuff to limb interface pressure during blood flow restriction (BFR), and the perceptual and mean arterial pressure responses, in different BFR systems. Eighteen participants attended three experimental sessions in a randomised, crossover, counterbalanced design. Participants underwent inflations at 40% and 80% limb occlusive pressure (LOP) at rest and completed 4 sets of unilateral leg press exercise at 30% of one repetition maximum with BFR at 80% LOP. Different BFR systems were use...

Resistance band training or general exercise in multidisciplinary rehabilitation of low back pain? A randomized trial.

Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation has been recommended for chronic low back pain (LBP), including physical exercise. However, which exercise-modality that is most advantageous in multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation could be more effective in reducing pain-related disability when general physical exercise was replaced by strength training in form of progressive resistance training u...

Trends in time-loss injuries during the 2011-2016 South African Rugby Youth weeks.

Youth rugby is a popular sport in South Africa (SA) with a high injury incidence. The annual SA Rugby Youth Week tournaments attract the top age group players in the country providing a sample of players for reliable injury surveillance. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in time-loss injury rates at the SA Rugby Youth Week tournaments between 2011 and 2016, differences between age-groups, and to investigate associated injury risk factors.

The prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon injuries in Australian Football players beyond a time-loss definition.

Little is known about the prevalence and associated of morbidity of tendon problems. With only severe cases of tendon problems missing games, players that have their training and performance impacted are not captured by traditional injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon problems in elite male Australian football players using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) overuse questionnaire, compared to a time-loss definition.

The effect of Nordic hamstring exercise training volume on biceps femoris long head architectural adaptation.

To determine the time course of architectural adaptations in the biceps femoris long head (BF) following high or low volume eccentric training.

Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus Cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice (MC) on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, vascular function and exercise performance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo (PLA) - controlled, crossover study, 10 trained cyclists (mean ± SD; V̇O59.0 ± 7.0 ml/kg/min) acutely ingested 30 mL of either MC or PLA following dietary restrictions of polyphenol-rich compounds, and completed 6 min moderate- and severe-intensity cycling bouts 1.5 h post ingestion on two occasio...

Modelling the impact of players' workload on the injury-burden of English Premier League football clubs.

The loss of players through injury is known to affect team performance in many sports; it is important therefore for professional teams to be able to quantify the likely injury-burden that will be encountered throughout a season. A kinetic model, based on the rates at which match and training injuries are sustained and resolved, a team's squad size and the 2017/18 season fixture schedule for teams competing in the English Premier League, is used to produce daily forecasts of injury-burden experienced by a t...

Suppressed heat shock protein response in the kidney of exercise-trained diabetic rats.

Impaired expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and increased oxidative stress may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes by disrupted tissue protection. Acute exercise induces oxidative stress, whereas exercise training up-regulates endogenous antioxidant defenses and HSP expression. Although diabetic nephropathy is a major contributor to diabetic morbidity, information regarding the effect of HSPs on kidney protection is limited. The present study evaluated the effects of 8-week exercise training...

The Co-developmental Dynamic of Sport and School Burnout among Student-Athletes: The Role of Achievement Goals.

Student-athletes who strive for success in high level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. The present study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N= 391; N= 373) across the first year of upper secondary school by using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely, sport a...

Cardiorespiratory fitness not sedentary time or physical activity is associated with cardiometabolic risk in active older adults.

Sedentary time (ST) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are associated with cardiometabolic health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is also implicated but often overlooked in health recommendations. This study assessed the relationships between ST, MVPA, CRF and cardiometabolic health in highly active older individuals. 125 healthy amateur cyclists aged 55 to 79 years had their ST and MVPA levels assessed by actigraphy over a 7 day period. CRF was assessed using a maximal effort cycle ergometr...

Illegal bowling actions contribute to performance in cricket finger-spin bowlers.

With advances in technology, scientists are now able to more accurately measure elbow displacement changes during the cricket bowling action. This has led to the realisation that the majority of bowlers undergo some degree of elbow extension during the forward swing phase of bowling. Consequently, the International Cricket Council were obliged to revise the once zero tolerance for elbow extension threshold to a 15° range. However, it is still not understood if bowling with greater than 15° of elbow extens...

The end game: Mortality outcomes in North American professional athletes.

Comprehensive investigations into the mortality outcomes of elite athletes can assist in decoding risk factors of premature mortality and provide avenues for exploring human health through engagement in sport. As such, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine lifespan trends of athletes from the four major sports in North America: Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL). We hypothesized that proportio...

Eccentric exercise induces spatial changes in the mechanomyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle.

In this study, we hypothesized that the recordings of multi-channel mechanomyography (MMG) of the upper trapezius muscle would reveal spatially-dependent manifestations in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness occurring 24-h after eccentric exercise (ECC). Sixteen participants performed high intensity eccentric exercises (5 sets of 10 eccentric contractions at 100% of max elevation force) targeting the upper trapezius on their dominant side. Twelve accelerometers were attached to record MMG activity dur...

Injuries in Dutch elite field hockey players: a prospective cohort study.

This study describes the prevalence, incidence density, severity, and nature of injuries in elite field hockey players over the Dutch 2015-2016 season. Eighty players answered a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed-up every 2 weeks to report the hours spent on training/competition and experienced injuries, which were registered using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Questionnaire on Health Problems. Of the 74 players included in the analysis, 52 (70%) reported 112 injuries. Eighty-sev...

Regulation of bone blood flow in humans: The role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and adenosine.

The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of hea...

Influence of excessive exercise on immunity, metabolism and gut microbial diversity in an overtraining mice model.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the negative influence of excessive exercise on immunity, substance and energy metabolism as well as gut microbiota in mice. Firstly, an overtraining model of Male Kunming mice was established by high-intensity swimming exercise for four weeks. Then, a series of evaluation indicators, including the routine blood analysis, immune organ coefficient, digestive enzymes and aquaporins expression levels of small intestine and colon tissue, histological examinations of liv...

Effects of high-impact exercise on the physical properties of bones of ovariectomized rats fed to a high-protein diet.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n=8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and OVXEP, ovx, high-protein diet and jump; SH, sham, standard diet and sedentary; SHE, sham, standard diet and jump;...

Cardiopulmonary fitness is strongly associated with body cell mass and fat-free mass.

Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is commonly indexed by total body weight (TBW) to determine cardiopulmonary fitness (CPF). This approach may lead to misinterpretation, particularly in obese subjects. We investigated the normalization of VO2peak by different body composition markers.

Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon.

Metabolic factors such as cholesterol appear to play an important role in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. There is, however, no morphologic proof explaining the link between high cholesterol and tendinopathy. As apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) is essential for reverse cholesterol transport, it may be related to cholesterol overload in tendon. Nothing is known about Apo-A1 expression in tendon tissue. We examined the distribution of Apo-A1 protein in biopsies from normal and tendinopathy affected human ...

Effects of acute isometric resistance exercise on cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials.

Cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs) in relaxed biceps brachii have been reported to facilitate after acute isometric exercise of the elbow flexors. This facilitation, which reflects either enhanced corticospinal transmission or increased motoneurone excitability, has only been documented in the limb posture used during exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested if these spinal changes "transfer" to a second posture. Fourteen individuals completed 12 sets of high-force isometric contractions of the el...

A valid and reliable method to measure jump-specific training and competition load in elite volleyball players.

Use of a commercially available wearable device to monitor jump load with elite volleyball players has become common practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of this device, the Vert, to count jumps and measure jump height with professional volleyball players.

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