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PubMed Journal Database | Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) RSS

08:26 EDT 20th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 199 from Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)

Inhibition of mTOR by Rapamycin Aggravates Corneal Epithelial Stem Cell Deficiency by Upregulating Inflammatory Response.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is critical for the regulation of stem cell maintenance and function in a cell-type and context-dependent manner. However, the effects of mTOR signaling on corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) under inflammatory conditions are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibition with rapamycin promotes apoptosis of CESCs in a mouse model of sterile inflammation-induced corneal epithelial stem cell deficiency, and thereby aggravates the disease. Apoptosis i...

AKT3 is a pivotal molecule of CDH22 and GFRA1 signal pathways regulating Self-Renewal in Female Germline Stem Cells.

Female germline stem cells (FGSCs) are the rare population residing in cortex of ovary, with the potential to rescue female infertility caused by ovary failure. Recently, we reported that Cadherin-22 (CDH22), a member of cadherin family, regulates self-renewal of mouse FGSCs via interaction with JAK-STAT signal pathway and β-catenin. In this study, the expression profiles of FGSCs and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were analyzed to further reveal their similarity and difference, and AKT3 was predicted as...

Metabolomic and transcriptional analyses reveal atmospheric oxygen during human induced pluripotent stem cell generation impairs metabolic reprogramming.

The transition to pluripotency invokes profound metabolic restructuring, however reprogramming is accompanied by the retention of somatic cell metabolic and epigenetic memory. Modulation of metabolism during reprogramming has been shown to improve reprogramming efficiency, yet it is not known how metabolite availability during reprogramming affects the physiology of resultant induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Metabolic analyses of iPSC generated under either physiological (5%; P-iPSC) or atmospheric (2...

Newly defined ABCB5 dermal mesenchymal stem cells promote healing of chronic iron overload wounds via secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

Here we report the beneficial effects of a newly identified dermal cell subpopulation expressing the ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) for the therapy of non-healing wounds. Local administration of dermal ABCB5 -derived MSCs attenuated macrophage-dominated inflammation and thereby accelerated healing of full-thickness excisional wounds in the iron overload mouse model mimicking the non-healing state of human venous leg ulcers. The observed beneficial effects were due to interleukin-1 recepto...

TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is a key regulator in switching stemness and biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are largely studied for their promising therapeutic properties. TSG-6, a potent tissue-protective and anti-inflammatory factor, has been demonstrated to be responsible for a significant part of wound healing-promoting properties mediated by MSCs. Nevertheless, current knowledge approximately the biological function of TSG-6 in MSCs is limited. Here, we demonstrated that TSG-6 is a crucial factor that influences many functional properties of MSCs. The transcriptomic sequencing a...

PDGF signaling in primitive endoderm cell survival is mediated by PI3K-mTOR through p53-independent mechanism.

Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (RTK) are key regulators of the formation of the primitive endoderm (PrE) and the epiblast (Epi) from the inner cell mass of the mouse preimplantation embryo. Among them, FGF signaling is critical for PrE cell specification while PDGF signaling is critical for the survival of committed PrE cells. Here, we investigated possible functional redundancies between FGF, PDGF and KIT signaling and showed that only PDGF signaling is involved in PrE cell survival. In addition, we an...

Reduction of adverse cardiac scarring facilitates pluripotent stem cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction.

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are an attractive, reliable source for generating functional cardiomyocytes for regeneration of infarcted heart. However, inefficient cell engraftment into host tissue remains a notable challenge to therapeutic success due to mechanical damage or relatively inhospitable microenvironment. Evidence has shown that excessively formed scar tissues around cell delivery sites present as mechanical and biological barriers that inhibit migration and engraftment of implanted cells. In th...

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Dynamics are Regulated by Progenitor Demand: Lessons from a Quantitative Modeling Approach.

The prevailing view on murine hematopoiesis and on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in particular derives from experiments that are related to regeneration after irradiation and HSC transplantation. However, over the past years, different experimental techniques have been developed to investigate hematopoiesis under homeostatic conditions, thereby providing access to proliferation and differentiation rates of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the unperturbed situation. Moreover, it has become clear t...

Concise Review: Targeting cancer stem cells and their supporting niche using oncolytic viruses.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate to give rise to heterogenous cancer cell lineages in solid tumors. These CSC populations are associated with metastasis, tumor relapse and resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. Here, we focus on the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) to target CSCs as well as the OV-driven interferon production in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can repress CSC properties. We explore the ability of OVs to deliver combinations of immune-...

A Preview of Selected Articles - April 2019.

Adipose-derived stem cell therapy ameliorates ionizing irradiation fibrosis (RIF) via hepatocyte growth factor mediated TGF-β down regulation and recruitment of bone marrow cells.

Radiation therapy to anatomic regions including the head and neck, chest wall and extremities can produce radiation induced fibrosis (RIF). To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism (s) involved in RIF, female C57BL/6J mice were irradiated to the right flank to 35 Gy in single fraction using 6Mv electrons. Radiation fibrosis was detected by day 14, was increased by day 28, and confirmed by Masson's Trichrome histological staining for collagen. Biopsied tissue at day 14 showed an increase in expres...

Rapamycin Induced Autophagy Inhibits Inflammation-Mediated Endplate Degeneration by Enhancing Nrf2/Keap1 Signalling of Cartilage Endplate Stem Cells.

Cartilage endplate (CEP) calcification inhibits the transport of metabolites and nutrients in the intervertebral disc and is an important initiating factor of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the mechanisms governing CEP degeneration have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we established a mouse CEP degeneration model and showed that autophagy insufficiency caused the degeneration of CEP. We found that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) increased the l...

Survival/adaptation of Bone Marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells after long term starvation through selective processes.

After in vivo transplantation Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) face an ischemic microenvironment, characterized by nutrient deprivation and reduced oxygen tension, which reduces their viability and thus their therapeutic potential. Therefore, MSC response to models of in vitro ischemia is of relevance for improving their survival and therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this study is to understand the survival/adaptive response mechanism that MSC use to respond to extreme culture conditions. Specifically, the effec...

Highly purified human extracellular vesicles produced by stem cells alleviate aging cellular phenotypes of senescent human cells.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, mediate intercellular communications and exert various biological activities via delivering unique cargos of functional molecules such as proteins to recipient cells. Previous studies showed that EVs produced and secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can substitute intact MSCs for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we examined properties and functions of EVs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can be...

Somatic MIWI2 Hinders Direct Lineage Reprogramming from Fibroblast to Hepatocyte.

Remodeling of the gene regulatory network in cells is believed to be a prerequisite for their lineage reprogramming. However, its key regulatory factors are not yet elucidated. In this paper we investigate the role of PIWI proteins and provide evidence that one of them, MIWI2, is elicited during trans-differentiation of fibroblasts into hepatocyte-like cells. In coincidence with the peak expression of MIWI2, we identified the appearance of a unique intermediate epigenetic state characterized by a specific p...

Coordinating Tissue Regeneration through TGF-β Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) In-activation and Re-activation.

Aberrant wound healing presents as inappropriate or insufficient tissue formation. Using a model of musculoskeletal injury, we demonstrate that loss of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signaling reduces inappropriate tissue formation (heterotopic ossification) through reduced cellular differentiation. Upon identifying increased proliferation with loss of TAK1 signaling, we considered a regenerative approach to address insufficient tissue production through coordinated inactivation of TAK1 to promote cellula...

Functional equivalency in human somatic cell nuclear transfer - derived endothelial cells.

The derivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has prompted a re-emerging interest in utilizing such cells for therapeutic cloning. Despite recent advancements in derivation protocols, the functional potential of CHA-NT4 derived cells is yet to be elucidated. For this reason, this study sought to differentiate CHA-NT4 cells toward an endothelial lineage in order to evaluate in vitro and in vivo functionality. To initial differentiation, embryoid body formation o...

Modelling of photoreceptor donor-host interaction following transplantation reveals a role for Crx, Müller glia and Rho/ROCK signalling in neurite outgrowth.

The goal of photoreceptor transplantation is to establish functional synaptic connectivity between donor cells and second order neurons in the host retina. There is, however, limited evidence of donor-host photoreceptor connectivity post-transplant. In this report, we investigated the effect of the host retinal environment on donor photoreceptor neurite outgrowth in vivo and identify a neurite outgrowth-promoting effect of host Crx retinas following transplantation of purified GFP-expressing photoreceptors....

FOXD3 suppresses tumor-initiating features in lung cancer via Transcriptional Repression of WDR5.

The tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a cell population that can initiate tumor occurrence, mediate drug resistance, and give rise to metastasis. FOXD3 is a forkhead box (Fox) transcription factor family that regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cell and tumorigenicity. However, it is unclear whether FOXD3 play any role in TIC and tumor metastasis.

Human multipotent stromal cell secreted effectors accelerate islet regeneration.

Human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC) can induce islet regeneration after transplantation via the secretion of proteins that establish an islet regenerative niche. However, the identity of hMSC-secreted signals and the mechanisms by which pancreatic islet regeneration is induced remain unknown. Recently, mammalian pancreatic α-cells have been shown to possess considerable plasticity, and differentiate into β-like cells after near complete β-cell loss or overexpression of key transcriptional regulators. ...

Mouse Wnt1-CRE-Rosa dental pulp stem cells directly contribute to the calvarial bone regeneration process.

Stem cells endowed with skeletogenic potentials seeded in specific scaffolds are considered attractive tissue engineering strategies for treating large bone defects. In the context of cranio-facial bone, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells derived from the dental pulp (DPSCs) have demonstrated significant osteogenic properties. Their neural crest embryonic origin further makes them a potential accessible therapeutic tool to repair cranio-facial bone. The stem cell's direct involvement in the repair process versu...

Global proteomic and methylome analysis in human induced pluripotent stem cells reveals overexpression of a human TLR3 affecting proper innate immune response signaling.

When considering the clinical applications of autologous cell replacement therapy of human iPSC-derived cells there is a clear need to better understand what the immune response will be before we embark on extensive clinical trials to treat or model human disease. We performed a detailed assessment comparing human fibroblast cell lines (termed F1) reprogrammed into human iPSC and subsequently differentiated back to fibroblast cells (termed F2) or other human iPSC-derived cells including neural stem cells ma...

A Preview of Selected Articles - February 2019.

CHD7 is Suppressed in the Perinecrotic/Ischemic Microenvironment and is a Novel Regulator of Glioblastoma Angiogenesis.

Tumorigenic and non-neoplastic tissue injury occurs via the ischemic microenvironment defined by low oxygen, pH, and nutrients due to blood supply malfunction. Ischemic conditions exist within regions of pseudopalisading necrosis, a pathological hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. To recapitulate the physiologic microenvironment found in GBM tumors and tissue injury, we developed an in vitro ischemic model and identified chromodomain helicase DNA binding ...

Hypoxia Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Senescence in Human c-Kit+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells.

Senescence-associated dysfunction deleteriously affects biological activites of human c-Kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs), particularly under conditions of in vitro culture. In comparison, preservation of self-renewal and decreases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are characteristic of murine CPCs in vivo that reside within hypoxic niches. Recapitulating hypoxic niche oxygen tension conditions of ~1% O in vitro for expansion of hCPCs rather than typical normoxic cell culture conditions (21...


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