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PubMed Journal Database | TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik RSS

15:17 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 148 from TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

QTL mapping of insect resistance components of Solanum galapagense.

QTLs for insect resistance parameters, trichome type IV development, and more than 200 non-volatile metabolites, including 76 acyl sugars, all co-locate at the end of Chromosome 2 of Solanum galapagense. Host plant resistance is gaining importance as more and more insecticides are being banned due to environmental concerns. In tomato, resistance towards insects is found in wild relatives and has been attributed to the presence of glandular trichomes and their specific phytochemical composition. In this pape...

Connecting genome structural variation with complex traits in crop plants.

Structural genome variation is a major determinant of useful trait diversity. We describe how genome analysis methods are enabling discovery of trait-associated structural variants and their potential impact on breeding. As our understanding of complex crop genomes continues to grow, there is growing evidence that structural genome variation plays a major role in determining traits important for breeding and agriculture. Identifying the extent and impact of structural variants in crop genomes is becoming in...

Prospects of pan-genomics in barley.

The concept of a pan-genome refers to intraspecific diversity in genome content and structure, encompassing both genes and intergenic space. Pan-genomic studies employ a combination of de novo sequence assembly and reference-based alignment to discover and genotype structural variants. The large size and complex structure of Triticeae genomes were for a long time an obstacle for genomic research in barley and its relatives. Now that a reference genome is available, computational pipelines for high-quality s...

An evolutionarily conserved non-synonymous SNP in a leucine-rich repeat domain determines anthracnose resistance in watermelon.

A non-synonymous SNP of CC-NBS-LRR was firstly mapped to confer resistance to anthracnose in watermelon. Newly proposed LRR domain harboring the SNP is evolutionary conserved in the Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae. Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum devastates many plants. Despite the importance of the disease, the mechanisms of resistance against it are poorly understood. Here, we identified a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in a leucine-rich repeat domain as a marker for r...

Genetic architecture of wheat stripe rust resistance revealed by combining QTL mapping using SNP-based genetic maps and bulked segregant analysis.

A major stripe rust resistance QTL was mapped to a 0.4 centimorgan (cM) genetic region on the long arm of chromosome 7B, using combined genome-wide linkage mapping and bulk segregant analysis. The German winter wheat cv. Centrum has displayed high levels of adult plant stripe rust resistance (APR) in field environments for many years. Here, we used the combined genome-wide linkage mapping and pool-extreme genotyping to characterize the APR resistance. One hundred and fifty-one F recombinant inbred lines der...

Different loci associated with root and foliar resistance to sudden death syndrome (Fusarium virguliforme) in soybean.

Different loci associated with root resistance to F. virguliforme colonization and foliar resistance to phytotoxin damage in soybean. Use of resistant cultivars is the most efficacious approach to manage soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme. The objectives of this study were to (1) map the loci associated with root and foliar resistance to F. virguliforme infection and (2) decipher the relationships between root infection, foliar damage, and plot yield. A mapping population c...

Delimitation of wheat ph1b deletion and development of ph1b-specific DNA markers.

We detected the deletion breakpoints of wheat ph1b mutant and the actual size of the deletion. Also, we developed ph1b deletion-specific markers useful for ph1b-mediated gene introgression and genome studies. The Ph1 (pairing homoeologous) locus has been considered a major genetic system for the diploidized meiotic behavior of the allopolyploid genome in wheat. It functions as a defense system against meiotic homoeologous pairing and recombination in polyploid wheat. A large deletion of the genomic region h...

The Sorghum QTL Atlas: a powerful tool for trait dissection, comparative genomics and crop improvement.

We describe the development and application of the Sorghum QTL Atlas, a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate candidate gene identification across three cereal species, sorghum, maize and rice. The mechanisms governing the genetic control of many quantitative traits are only poorly understood and have yet to be fully exploited. Over the last two decades, over a thousand QTL and GWAS studies have been published in the major cereal crops including sorghum, maize and rice. A large body o...

Speed breeding orphan crops.

This review explores how speed breeding protocols that hasten plant growth and development could be applied to shorten breeding cycles and accelerate research activities in orphan crops. There is a growing need for the agri-food sector to sustainably produce larger quantities of higher-quality food, feed and fuel using fewer resources, within the context of changing agroclimatic conditions. Meeting this challenge will require the accelerated development and dissemination of improved plant varieties and subs...

Construction of a high-density linkage map and QTL detection of downy mildew resistance in Vitis aestivalis-derived 'Norton'.

A major QTL for downy mildew resistance was detected on chromosome 18 (Rpv27) in Vitis aestivalis-derived 'Norton' based on a high-resolution linkage map with SNP and SSR markers as well as 2 years of field and laboratory phenotyping data. Grapevine downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola is one of the most widespread and destructive diseases, particularly in humid viticultural areas where it damages green tissues and defoliates vines. Traditional Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars are sus...

Identification and characterization of a semi-dominant restorer-of-fertility 1 allele in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

The sugar beet Rf1 locus has a number of molecular variants. We found that one of the molecular variants is a weak allele of a previously identified allele. Male sterility (MS) caused by nuclear-mitochondrial interaction is called cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in which MS-inducing mitochondria are suppressed by a nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility. Rf and rf are the suppressing and non-suppressing alleles, respectively. This dichotomic view, however, seems somewhat unsatisfactory to explain the recently...

Integrating genomic-enabled prediction and high-throughput phenotyping in breeding for climate-resilient bread wheat.

Genomic selection and high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) are promising tools to accelerate breeding gains for high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Hence, our objective was to evaluate them for predicting grain yield (GY) in drought-stressed (DS) and late-sown heat-stressed (HS) environments of the International maize and wheat improvement center's elite yield trial nurseries. We observed that the average genomic prediction accuracies using fivefold cross-validations were 0.50 and 0.51 in the ...

Development and characterization of wheat-sea wheatgrass (Thinopyrum junceiforme) amphiploids for biotic stress resistance and abiotic stress tolerance.

Development of a complete wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme amphiploid facilitated identification of resistance to multiple pests and abiotic stress derived from the wild species and shed new light on its genome composition. Wheat production is facing numerous challenges from biotic and abiotic stresses. Alien gene transfer has been an effective approach for wheat germplasm enhancement. Thinopyrum junceiforme, also known as sea wheatgrass (SWG), is a distant relative of wheat and a relatively untapped source for...

Rapid gene cloning in cereals.

The large and complex genomes of many cereals hindered cloning efforts in the past. Advances in genomics now allow the rapid cloning of genes from humanity's most valuable crops. The past two decades were characterized by a genomics revolution that entailed profound changes to crop research, plant breeding, and agriculture. Today, high-quality reference sequences are available for all major cereal crop species. Large resequencing and pan-genome projects start to reveal a more comprehensive picture of the ge...

Mutation in the putative ketoacyl-ACP reductase CaKR1 induces loss of pungency in Capsicum.

A putative ketoacyl-ACP reductase (CaKR1) that was not previously known to be associated with pungency of Capsicum was identified from map-based cloning and functional characterization. The pungency of chili pepper fruits is due to the presence of capsaicinoids, which are synthesized through the convergence of the phenylpropanoid and branched-chain fatty acid pathways. The extensive, global use of pungent and non-pungent peppers underlines the importance of understanding the genetic mechanism underlying cap...

Dissection of two quantitative trait loci with pleiotropic effects on plant height and spike length linked in coupling phase on the short arm of chromosome 2D of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Two QTL with pleiotropic effects on plant height and spike length linked in coupling phase on chromosome 2DS were dissected, and diagnostic marker for each QTL was developed. Plant height (PHT) is a crucial trait related to plant architecture and yield potential, and dissection of its underlying genetic basis would help to improve the efficiency of designed breeding in wheat. Here, two quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked in coupling phase on the short arm of chromosome 2D with pleiotropic effects on PHT an...

Fine mapping and candidate gene screening of the downy mildew resistance gene RPF1 in Spinach.

A SLAF-BSA approach was used to locate the RPF1 locus. The three most likely candidate genes were identified which provide a basic for cloning the resistance gene at the RPF1 locus. Spinach downy mildew is a globally devastating oomycete disease. The use of downy mildew resistance genes constitutes the most effective approach for disease management. Hence, the objective of the present study was to fine map the first-reported resistance locus RPF1. The resistance allele at this resistance locus was effective...

Carbon isotope composition, water use efficiency, and drought sensitivity are controlled by a common genomic segment in maize.

A genomic segment on maize chromosome 7 influences carbon isotope composition, water use efficiency, and leaf growth sensitivity to drought, possibly by affecting stomatal properties. Climate change is expected to decrease water availability in many agricultural production areas around the globe. Therefore, plants with improved ability to grow under water deficit are urgently needed. We combined genetic, phenomic, and physiological approaches to understand the relationship between growth, stomatal conductan...

Genetic analysis and identification of a candidate gene associated with in vitro regeneration ability of cucumber.

Candidate genes associated with in vitro regeneration were identified in cucumber. The ability to regenerate shoots or whole plants from differentiated plant tissues is essential for plant transformation. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), regeneration ability varies considerably across accessions, but the genetic mechanism has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, 148 recombinant inbred lines and a core collection were examined to identify candidate genes involved in cucumber regeneration. Four Q...

Novel loci fsd6.1 and Csgl3 regulate ultra-high fruit spine density in cucumber.

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis of multiple populations in multiple environments revealed that the fsd6.2 locus, which includes the candidate gene Csgl3, controls high fruit spine density in natural cucumbers. GWAS identified a novel locus fsd6.1, which regulates ultra-high fruit spine density in combination with Csgl3, and evolved during cucumber domestication. Fruit spine density, a domestication trait, largely influences the commercial value of cucumbers. However, the molecular basis of fruit spin...

Fine mapping of a dominant gene conferring resistance to spot blotch caused by a new pathotype of Bipolaris sorokiniana in barley.

We fine-mapped and physically anchored a dominant gene (Rbs7) conferring resistance to spot blotch caused by a new pathotype of Bipolaris sorokiniana in a genomic interval of 304 kb on barley chromosome 6H. Spot blotch, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an economically important disease on barley in the Upper Midwest region of the USA and Prairie Provinces of Canada. A new pathotype (pathotype 7, represented by isolate ND4008) of B. sorokiniana has been identified, which is highly virulent on barley cult...

Promoter variations in a homeobox gene, BnA10.LMI1, determine lobed leaves in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in Brassica napus, and cis-regulatory divergences cause the different allele effects. Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait, and large variations in this trait exist within the Brassica germplasm. The lobed leaf is a unique morphological characteristic for Brassica improvement. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of leaf lobing in Brassica is poorly understood. Here, we show that an incompletely dominant locus, BnLLA10, is responsible for the ...

Genome-wide association study of heading and flowering dates and construction of its prediction equation in Chinese common wheat.

Heading date is one of the most important traits in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the 90 K iSelect SNP genotyping assay indicated that a total of 306 loci were significantly associated with heading and flowering dates in 13 environments in Chinese common wheat from the Yellow and Huai wheat region. Of these, 105 loci were significantly correlated with both heading and flowering dates and were found in clusters on chromosomes 2, 5, ...

CaVIL1, a plant homeodomain gene that promotes flowering in pepper.

CaVIL1 is a homolog of VIL1, a regulator of vernalization response in Arabidopsis and acts as a flowering promoter in pepper which does not respond to vernalization and photoperiod. As part of our goal to study the genetic and molecular basis of transition to flowering in pepper, we isolated the late-flowering mutant E-2698. Aside from late flowering, multiple pleiotropic alterations of the shoot structure, such as enlarged and distorted leaves, weak apical dominance, and reduced angle of the lateral branch...

Correction to: Mapping adult plant stem rust resistance in barley accessions Hietpas-5 and GAW-79.

Unfortunately, one co-author name was incorrectly published in the original publication. The complete correct name should read as follows.


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