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PubMed Journal Database | TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik RSS

21:35 EDT 15th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 137 from TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

Mutation in the putative ketoacyl-ACP reductase CaKR1 induces loss of pungency in Capsicum.

A putative ketoacyl-ACP reductase (CaKR1) that was not previously known to be associated with pungency of Capsicum was identified from map-based cloning and functional characterization. The pungency of chili pepper fruits is due to the presence of capsaicinoids, which are synthesized through the convergence of the phenylpropanoid and branched-chain fatty acid pathways. The extensive, global use of pungent and non-pungent peppers underlines the importance of understanding the genetic mechanism underlying cap...

Dissection of two quantitative trait loci with pleiotropic effects on plant height and spike length linked in coupling phase on the short arm of chromosome 2D of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Two QTL with pleiotropic effects on plant height and spike length linked in coupling phase on chromosome 2DS were dissected, and diagnostic marker for each QTL was developed. Plant height (PHT) is a crucial trait related to plant architecture and yield potential, and dissection of its underlying genetic basis would help to improve the efficiency of designed breeding in wheat. Here, two quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked in coupling phase on the short arm of chromosome 2D with pleiotropic effects on PHT an...

Fine mapping and candidate gene screening of the downy mildew resistance gene RPF1 in Spinach.

A SLAF-BSA approach was used to locate the RPF1 locus. The three most likely candidate genes were identified which provide a basic for cloning the resistance gene at the RPF1 locus. Spinach downy mildew is a globally devastating oomycete disease. The use of downy mildew resistance genes constitutes the most effective approach for disease management. Hence, the objective of the present study was to fine map the first-reported resistance locus RPF1. The resistance allele at this resistance locus was effective...

Carbon isotope composition, water use efficiency, and drought sensitivity are controlled by a common genomic segment in maize.

A genomic segment on maize chromosome 7 influences carbon isotope composition, water use efficiency, and leaf growth sensitivity to drought, possibly by affecting stomatal properties. Climate change is expected to decrease water availability in many agricultural production areas around the globe. Therefore, plants with improved ability to grow under water deficit are urgently needed. We combined genetic, phenomic, and physiological approaches to understand the relationship between growth, stomatal conductan...

Genetic analysis and identification of a candidate gene associated with in vitro regeneration ability of cucumber.

Candidate genes associated with in vitro regeneration were identified in cucumber. The ability to regenerate shoots or whole plants from differentiated plant tissues is essential for plant transformation. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), regeneration ability varies considerably across accessions, but the genetic mechanism has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, 148 recombinant inbred lines and a core collection were examined to identify candidate genes involved in cucumber regeneration. Four Q...

Novel loci fsd6.1 and Csgl3 regulate ultra-high fruit spine density in cucumber.

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis of multiple populations in multiple environments revealed that the fsd6.2 locus, which includes the candidate gene Csgl3, controls high fruit spine density in natural cucumbers. GWAS identified a novel locus fsd6.1, which regulates ultra-high fruit spine density in combination with Csgl3, and evolved during cucumber domestication. Fruit spine density, a domestication trait, largely influences the commercial value of cucumbers. However, the molecular basis of fruit spin...

Fine mapping of a dominant gene conferring resistance to spot blotch caused by a new pathotype of Bipolaris sorokiniana in barley.

We fine-mapped and physically anchored a dominant gene (Rbs7) conferring resistance to spot blotch caused by a new pathotype of Bipolaris sorokiniana in a genomic interval of 304 kb on barley chromosome 6H. Spot blotch, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an economically important disease on barley in the Upper Midwest region of the USA and Prairie Provinces of Canada. A new pathotype (pathotype 7, represented by isolate ND4008) of B. sorokiniana has been identified, which is highly virulent on barley cult...

Promoter variations in a homeobox gene, BnA10.LMI1, determine lobed leaves in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in Brassica napus, and cis-regulatory divergences cause the different allele effects. Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait, and large variations in this trait exist within the Brassica germplasm. The lobed leaf is a unique morphological characteristic for Brassica improvement. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of leaf lobing in Brassica is poorly understood. Here, we show that an incompletely dominant locus, BnLLA10, is responsible for the ...

Genome-wide association study of heading and flowering dates and construction of its prediction equation in Chinese common wheat.

Heading date is one of the most important traits in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the 90 K iSelect SNP genotyping assay indicated that a total of 306 loci were significantly associated with heading and flowering dates in 13 environments in Chinese common wheat from the Yellow and Huai wheat region. Of these, 105 loci were significantly correlated with both heading and flowering dates and were found in clusters on chromosomes 2, 5, ...

CaVIL1, a plant homeodomain gene that promotes flowering in pepper.

CaVIL1 is a homolog of VIL1, a regulator of vernalization response in Arabidopsis and acts as a flowering promoter in pepper which does not respond to vernalization and photoperiod. As part of our goal to study the genetic and molecular basis of transition to flowering in pepper, we isolated the late-flowering mutant E-2698. Aside from late flowering, multiple pleiotropic alterations of the shoot structure, such as enlarged and distorted leaves, weak apical dominance, and reduced angle of the lateral branch...

Correction to: Mapping adult plant stem rust resistance in barley accessions Hietpas-5 and GAW-79.

Unfortunately, one co-author name was incorrectly published in the original publication. The complete correct name should read as follows.

A major QTL on chromosome C05 significantly reduces acid detergent lignin (ADL) content and increases seed oil and protein content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

A reduction in acid detergent lignin content in oilseed rape resulted in an increase in seed oil and protein content. Worldwide increasing demand for vegetable oil and protein requires continuous breeding efforts to enhance the yield of oil and protein crop species. The oil-extracted meal of oilseed rape is currently mainly used for feeding livestock, but efforts are undertaken to use the oilseed rape protein in food production. One limiting factor is the high lignin content of black-seeded oilseed rape tha...

A heuristic method for fast and accurate phasing and imputation of single-nucleotide polymorphism data in bi-parental plant populations.

Key message New fast and accurate method for phasing and imputation of SNP chip genotypes within diploid bi-parental plant populations. This paper presents a new heuristic method for phasing and imputation of genomic data in diploid plant species. Our method, called AlphaPlantImpute, explicitly leverages features of plant breeding programmes to maximise the accuracy of imputation. The features are a small number of parents, which can be inbred and usually have high-density genomic data, and few recombinatio...

Complete resistance to powdery mildew and partial resistance to downy mildew in a Cucumis hystrix introgression line of cucumber were controlled by a co-localized locus.

Key message A single recessive gene for complete resistance to powdery mildew and a major-effect QTL for partial resistance to downy mildew were co-localized in a Cucumis hystrix introgression line of cucumber. Downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) are two major foliar diseases in cucumber. DM resistance (DMR) and PM resistance (PMR) may share common components; however, the genetic relationship between them remains unclear. IL52, a Cucumis hystrix introgression line of cucumber which has been reported ...

Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Oryza rhizomatis in Oryza sativa: production, cytology, alien trait introgression, molecular analysis and breeding application.

Key message Development of MAALs and disomic introgression lines derived from the cross between O. sativa and O. rhizomatis to exploit and utilize the valuable traits for rice improvement. The CC genome wild species, Oryza rhizomatis, possesses valuable traits for rice improvement. Unlike other CC genome wild rice, O. rhizomatis is less studied and none of the research has focused on the utilization of this resource in rice breeding. The transfer of novel genes governing the valuable traits from O. rhizomat...

FaRCg1: a quantitative trait locus conferring resistance to Colletotrichum crown rot caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in octoploid strawberry.

Colletotrichum crown rot (CCR) is an important disease of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) throughout the Southeastern US and in subtropical climates around the world, where hot and humid conditions facilitate rapid disease development. Yet no resistance loci have been described to date, as genetic studies have been historically difficult in allo-octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) strawberry. In the present study, we investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to CCR. Four population sets from the Un...

Pyramiding of nine transgenes in maize generates high-level resistance against necrotrophic maize pathogens.

Key message Nine transgenes from different categories, viz. plant defense response genes and anti-apoptosis genes, played combined roles in maize to inhibit the necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Bipolaris maydis. Maize sheath blight and southern corn leaf blight are major global threats to maize production. The management of these necrotrophic pathogens has encountered limited success due to the characteristics of their lifestyle. Here, we presented a transgenic pyramiding breeding strategy to a...

Multi-environment QTL analysis of plant and flower morphological traits in tetraploid rose.

Rose morphological traits such as prickles or petal number are influenced by a few key QTL which were detected across different growing environments-necessary for genomics-assisted selection in non-target environments. Rose, one of the world's most-loved and commercially important ornamental plants, is predominantly tetraploid, possessing four rather than two copies of each chromosome. This condition complicates genetic analysis, and so the majority of previous genetic studies in rose have been performed at...

The early flowering trait of an emmer wheat accession (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum) is associated with the cis-element of the Vrn-A3 locus.

We identified a novel allele of the Vrn-A3 gene that is associated with an early flowering trait in wheat. This trait is caused by a cis-element GATA box in Vrn-A3. To identify novel flowering genes in wheat, we investigated days from germination to heading (DGH) in tetraploid wheat accessions. We found that the tetraploid variety Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum (TN26) harbors unknown genes that surpass the earliness effect of the early flowering allele Ppd-A1a harbored by TN28 (T. turgidum L. ssp. turgi...

Unlocking historical phenotypic data from an ex situ collection to enhance the informed utilization of genetic resources of barley (Hordeum sp.).

Key message Historical data generated during seed regeneration are valuable to populate a bio-digital resource center for barley (Hordeum sp.). Precise estimates of trait performance of genetic resources are considered as an intellectually challenging, complex, costly and time-consuming step needed to exploit the phenotypic and genetic diversity maintained in genebanks for breeding and research. Using barley (Hordeum sp.) as a model, we examine strategies to tap into historical data available from regenerat...

Phenotypic and genetic analysis of spike and kernel characteristics in wheat reveals long-term genetic trends of grain yield components.

Phenotypic and genetic analysis of six spike and kernel characteristics in wheat revealed geographic patterns as well as long-term trends arising from breeding progress, particularly in regard to spikelet fertility, i.e. the number of kernels per spikelet, a grain yield component that appears to underlie the increase in the number of kernels per spike. Wheat is a staple crop of global relevance that faces continuous demands for improved grain yield. In this study, we evaluated a panel of 407 winter wheat cu...

Identification and characterization of Rht25, a locus on chromosome arm 6AS affecting wheat plant height, heading time, and spike development.

This study identified Rht25, a new plant height locus on wheat chromosome arm 6AS, and characterized its pleiotropic effects on important agronomic traits. Understanding genes regulating wheat plant height is important to optimize harvest index and maximize grain yield. In modern wheat varieties grown under high-input conditions, the gibberellin-insensitive semi-dwarfing alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b have been used extensively to confer lodging tolerance and improve harvest index. However, negative pleiotropi...

A bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)-resistance gene is fine-mapped to the same region as Rsv1-h in the soybean cultivar Suweon 97.

In the soybean cultivar Suweon 97, BCMV-resistance gene was fine-mapped to a 58.1-kb region co-localizing with the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-resistance gene, Rsv1-h raising a possibility that the same gene is utilized against both viral pathogens. Certain soybean cultivars exhibit resistance against soybean mosaic virus (SMV) or bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Although several SMV-resistance loci have been reported, the understanding of the mechanism underlying BCMV resistance in soybean is limited. Here,...

Comparative genome-wide mapping versus extreme pool-genotyping and development of diagnostic SNP markers linked to QTL for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in common wheat.

A major stripe rust resistance QTL on chromosome 4BL was localized to a 4.5-Mb interval using comparative QTL mapping methods and validated in 276 wheat genotypes by haplotype analysis. CYMMIT-derived wheat line P10103 was previously identified to have adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in the greenhouse and field. The conventional approach for QTL mapping in common wheat is laborious. Here, we performed QTL detection of APR using a combination of genome-wide scanning and extreme pool-genotyping. S...

Exploitation of data from breeding programs supports rapid implementation of genomic selection for key agronomic traits in perennial ryegrass.

Exploitation of data from a ryegrass breeding program has enabled rapid development and implementation of genomic selection for sward-based biomass yield with a twofold-to-threefold increase in genetic gain. Genomic selection, which uses genome-wide sequence polymorphism data and quantitative genetics techniques to predict plant performance, has large potential for the improvement in pasture plants. Major factors influencing the accuracy of genomic selection include the size of reference populations, trait ...


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