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Substance use disorders (SUDs) have negative impacts on an entire family system and each family member may be at risk to develop a "codependency" on their SUD loved-one. Research has demonstrated that SUDs in the family environment associate with altered brain functioning of family members; however, research has not examined specific associations between codependency and brain functioning.
Despite high comorbidity between substance use disorders and other mental health diagnoses, there is a paucity of literature on buprenorphine treatment outcomes in outpatient mental health settings. This study aimed to identify rates and predictors of outpatient buprenorphine treatment retention in a Behavioral Health Clinic (BHC).
Recent surveys confirm continued increases in the use of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in adolescents and adults. Users often state that e-cigarettes reduce tobacco craving and withdrawal symptoms in addition to their smoking. Data from laboratory studies and clinical trials have confirmed these statements, though there are inconsistencies in the outcomes. In this pilot study, we set out to evaluate the effects of e-cigarettes, as compared to the participants' own cigarettes, on baseline craving and ...
With 47 600 opioid-related deaths in 2017, the yearly deaths have surpassed the HIV/AIDS peak yearly death rates. Residential rehabilitation (RR) and medication-assisted treatments (MAT) are commonly utilized treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD).
Lean (a.k.a.: Sizzurp, Purple Drank) is a recreational beverage that commonly contains codeine cough syrup. Despite its popularization in the hip-hop music scene, few epidemiologic studies have examined use. This study examined prevalence and correlates of use among a population at high-risk for drug use-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees.
Identical latent classes of substance use for 7 to 8 grade and 9 to 12 grade American Indian (AI) youth living on or near reservations suggest that patterns of substance use are established early among these youth. This study examines relationships of substance-related factors to latent class membership and whether these relationships differ by grade group.
US college student marijuana use is the highest since 1980. The objective was to investigate use characteristics among college students.
Buprenorphine/naloxone has been shown to be effective in the treatment of opioid use disorder. Due to its pharmacological properties, induction can be challenging, time-consuming, and result in sudden onset of withdrawal symptoms.
Amidst a surging national crisis of opioid use, concern has been expressed about its impact on veterans, but no study has presented a population-based comparison of opioid use disorder (OUD) among veterans and non-veterans. We analyzed national epidemiologic data to compare rates, correlates and impacts of the opioid crisis on male veterans and non-veterans.
The core pharmacological treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), although remission is only around 30% with them. Many patients will self-treat with opioids and due to the opiate system involvement in dysphoric mood and anxiety/stress responses, it is likely that antagonism of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system represents a potential target for treatment of PTSD. The aim of this study is to compare response of PTSD symptoms when antagonizing...
Topiramate has been studied in the treatment of substance use disorders and is often used off-label in the treatment of other disorders with impaired impulse control. We sought to determine whether impulsiveness could predict topiramate treatment response in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD).
Neuroactive steroids (NAS) may play a role in addiction, with observed increases in response to acute stress and drug use, but decreases with chronic substance use, suggesting that NAS neuroadaptations may occur with chronic substance use. However, levels of NAS in addicted individuals have not been systematically examined. Here, we evaluated a panel of NAS in men and women with cocaine use disorder (CUD) who participated in a clinical laboratory study of progesterone.
Although buprenorphine/naloxone is widely recognized as first-line therapy for opioid use disorder, the requirement for moderate withdrawal prior to initiation in efforts to avoid precipitated withdrawal can be a barrier to its initiation.
Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit high rates of executive functioning (EF) impairment, and that EF level can predict treatment retention. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if patients who completed a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD demonstrated recovered EF.
The opioid epidemic in the United States has resulted in a public health emergency. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with methadone and buprenorphine are evidence-based treatments for opioid use disorder. However, numerous barriers hinder access to treatment in rural areas. The use of telemedicine to deliver psychiatric services is demonstrated to be safe and effective; however, limited data exist on the novel application of telemedicine in the delivery of MAT. This report describes the results of a retr...
Substance use disorders (SUDs) have high comorbidities with psychiatric disorders. Childhood and adolescence are particularly vulnerable developmental periods for the onset of SUDs. The objective of this study was to explore the differences, if any, between Mexican adolescents and young adults with respect to the prevalences of groups of psychiatric disorders, the types of substances used and the social factors involved.
The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), an agonist at type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The common variant rs324420 C->A within the FAAH gene on chromosome 1 codes for a missense substitution (Pro129Thr), resulting in decreased FAAH activity and increased endocannabinoid potentiation. This FAAH variant has been linked to alterations in mood and stress reactivity, as well as being independently linked to increased risk for addiction. We hypothesized...
Substance use disorders are associated with lower cognitive functioning, and this impairment is associated with poorer outcomes. The Therapeutic Education System (TES) is an internet-based psychosocial intervention for substance use disorders that may provide enhanced treatment for individuals with cognitive deficits. This secondary analysis investigates the association between cognitive functioning and treatment outcomes in a large (N = 507) randomized controlled effectiveness trial of TES compared to ...
There may be substantial overlap in the risk factors for substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). Identifying risk factors for substance use initiation is essential for understanding the etiology and natural history of SUD and to develop empirically-based preventive interventions to reduce initiation.
Opioid use disorder (OUD) during pregnancy challenges public health. This study examines how pregnancy intention affects OUD treatment.