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05:09 EDT 6th April 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 113 from The American psychologist

In defense of the passive voice.

Writers of scientific articles are familiar with the advice to avoid using the passive voice. Prescriptivists argue that the passive leads to bloated, indirect, and even evasive writing, and they recommend that the active form be used instead. This article defends the passive voice against these charges and argues that this advice is misguided. The article begins with a summary of the passive construction and the diversity of its forms, many of which are not appreciated in discussions of the passive voice's...

Obesity: Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of a modern epidemic: Introduction to the special issue.

Approximately 70% of adults in the United States have obesity or are overweight and at risk of developing obesity over time. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality; the economic impact of the health care costs associated with obesity is anticipated to have a profound, detrimental effect on the country's economy within the next several decades. A number of psychologists have dedicated their careers to understanding psychosocial and behavioral factors that contribute to weight...

Choice is relative: Reinforcing value of food and activity in obesity treatment.

Persons with obesity find high-energy-dense food and sedentary behaviors highly reinforcing. Diets and exercise programs deprive individuals of many favorite foods and activities, which can counterproductively heighten their value and lead to relapse. Since the value of reinforcers depend on the alternatives available, one approach to reducing food and sedentary activity reinforcement is to build healthy alternative reinforcers. Current behavioral treatment programs for children and adults do not attempt to...

Behavioral and social routines and biological rhythms in prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity.

A growing body of research supports the potential importance of behavioral and social routines for children's health promotion and obesity risk reduction. Evidence in support of this comes from multiple lines of research, which suggest that specific behavioral routines, namely, eating and sleep routines, may be protective against excessive weight gain and development of pediatric obesity. Emerging work also supports the potential importance of the timing of these behavioral routines. From a circadian perspe...

Examining childhood obesity through the lens of developmental psychopathology: Framing the issues to guide best practices in research and intervention.

Rates of childhood overweight and obesity among youth in the United States remain historically high and can persist into adulthood, resulting in increased health care expenditures, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how principles drawn from developmental psychopathology (DP) can be applied to enhance current conceptualizations of obesity risk during childhood and beyond. DP is a theoretical perspective that has reshaped the landscape of childhood mental...

Summary of the clinical practice guideline for multicomponent behavioral treatment of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents.

The purpose of this clinical practice guideline developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) is to provide recommendations concerning multicomponent behavioral treatment of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents. Intended users of the guideline include psychologists, other health and mental health professionals, patients, families, and policymakers. The guideline development panel (GDP) used a systematic review conducted by the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-Based Pr...

A developmental framework of binge-eating disorder based on pediatric loss of control eating.

Although binge-eating disorder may manifest in childhood, a significantly larger proportion of youth report episodes involving a loss of control while eating, the hallmark feature of binge eating that predicts excess weight gain and obesity. Adults with binge-eating disorder often report that symptoms emerged during childhood or adolescence, suggesting that a developmental perspective of binge eating may be warranted. Thus, loss of control eating may be a marker of prodromal binge-eating disorder among cert...

Randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of adaptive "SMART" stepped-care treatment for adults with binge-eating disorder comorbid with obesity.

This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested effectiveness of adaptive SMART stepped-care treatment to "standard" behavioral weight loss (BWL [standard]) for patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred ninety-one patients were randomly assigned to 6 months of BWL (standard; n = 39) or stepped care (n = 152). Within stepped care, patients started with BWL for 1 month; treatment responders continued BWL, whereas nonresponders switched to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and patients...

Cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for overeating and obesity.

This article introduces the rapidly growing literature linking cognitive dysfunction to overeating and obesity. Though neural responses to food and food cues can predispose individuals to overeating, these processes are moderated by a series of cognitive factors. Deficits in attentional bias, delay discounting, and episodic memory have clear connections to overeating in both laboratory and real-world settings. New weight loss interventions target these deficits through strategies designed to either directly...

Lifestyle modification approaches for the treatment of obesity in adults.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended that primary care clinicians screen all adults for obesity and provide those affected intensive multicomponent behavioral interventions. Approximately 95 million U.S. adults qualify for such care, also referred to as lifestyle modification. Using the Guidelines (2013) for Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults (hereafter, Obesity Guidelines) as a framework, this article reviews the principal components of comprehensive lifestyle modification, which ...

A review of the psychosocial aspects of clinically severe obesity and bariatric surgery.

For the past 2 decades, clinically severe obesity (operationalized as a body mass index ≥40 kg/m2) has increased at a more pronounced rate that less severe obesity. As a result, the surgical treatment of obesity (bariatric surgery) has become a more widely accepted, yet still underutilized, treatment for persons with severe obesity and significant weight-related health problems. Psychologists play a central role on the multidisciplinary team involved in the preoperative assessment and postoperative manage...

How psychological insights can inform food policies to address unhealthy eating habits.

In this article, insights from psychology and behavioral economics are identified that help explain why it is hard to maintain healthy eating habits in modern food environments. Most eating decisions engage System 1, rather than System 2, processing, making it difficult for people to consistently make healthy choices in food environments that encourage overconsumption of unhealthy foods. The psychological vulnerabilities discussed include emotions and associations mattering more than reason, difficulty proc...

Weight stigma as a psychosocial contributor to obesity.

Weight stigma is a key aspect of the lived experience of individuals with obesity, and adversely affects health. This article provides an overview of recent evidence examining links between experiences of weight stigma and weight-related behaviors and health (e.g., maladaptive eating, physical activity, stress, obesity, weight loss), including health consequences for individuals with heightened vulnerability to weight stigma (e.g., youth and people seeking bariatric surgery) and implications for clinicians ...

Psychology's contributions to understanding and alleviating poverty and economic inequality: Introduction to the special section.

In the United States and around the world, economic inequality is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Psychological research is crucial to illuminating and interrupting the damaging consequences of economic hardship and disparities, understanding interpersonal and institutional responses to poverty and economic inequality, and developing effective poverty alleviation programs and policies. The articles in this special section explore psychology's contributions to understanding and alleviating povert...

Protective factors for youth confronting economic hardship: Current challenges and future avenues in resilience research.

Economic hardship during childhood is associated with worse mental and physical health across the life span. Over the past decade, interdisciplinary research has started to elucidate the behavioral and biological pathways that underlie these disparities and identify protective factors that mitigate against their occurrence. In this integrative review we describe these advances, highlight remaining gaps in knowledge, and outline a research agenda for psychologists. This article has 3 aims. First, we consider...

Reducing poverty and inequality through preschool-to-third-grade prevention services.

The contributions of psychology to the development and evaluation of preschool-to-third-grade prevention programs are analyzed with an emphasis on poverty alleviation through implementation of effective services for a greater number of children. The need to alleviate poverty and increase economic success is high. Early childhood programs have been found to be an effective strategy for promoting educational success and economic well-being, but the availability of high quality programs that are aligned and in...

Employment and poverty: Why work matters in understanding poverty.

This article synthesizes the work-related dynamics that contribute to economic inequality and identifies ways for psychologists to offer their expertise to mitigate poverty through employment and re-employment. We summarize scholarship from subspecialties under the umbrella of work psychology to explore concepts germane to understanding unemployment, underemployment, and reemployment. The review and synthesis is organized around 4 primary themes that concern the relationships between work, economic inequali...

The role of psychology in evidence-based policymaking: Mapping opportunities for strategic investment in poverty reduction.

Increasing efforts are being undertaken to understand how to improve the use of research evidence in policy settings. In particular, growing efforts to understand the use of research in legislative contexts. Although high-profile examples of psychology's contributions to public policy exist-particularly around antipoverty legislation-little systematic review has quantified how the field has informed federal policy across time. Recognizing the importance of exploring psychology's use in policymaking, we prov...

Walter Mischel (1930-2018).

This article memorializes Walter Mischel (1930 -2018). Mischel was a professor at the University of Colorado (1956 -1958), Harvard University (1958 -1962), Stanford University (1962-1983), and Columbia University (1983-2018). During this time, Mischel was recognized as a transformative figure in the field: he received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association in 1982, was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1991, and was inducted...

Lawrence Martin Brammer (1922-2018).

This article memorializes Lawrence Martin Brammer (1922-2018). Brammer was the president of Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1986 to 1987 and Fellow of the Society for Counseling Psychology. Over his long career, he received many awards and made major contributions to the field, including extensive international work, a breakthrough theories text with Everett Shostrom, and two terms of service on the APA Council of Representatives. His presidency of Di...

Susan Ervin-Tripp (1927-2018).

This article memorializes Susan Ervin-Tripp (1927-2018). Ervin-Tripp earned a doctoral degree in social psychology in 1955 from the University of Michigan. Her dissertation examined the link between bilingualism and cognition, which led her to a career in psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, two fields that she helped to establish. She worked on the Southwest Project in Comparative Psycholinguistics and studied effects of Native American languages on cognitive processes, and taught at the Harvard School ...

Kurt Salzinger (1929-2018).

This article memorializes Kurt Salzinger (1929-2018). Salzinger's main focus of research was schizophrenic speech and its functional characteristics. Collaborating with several colleagues, most notably Stephanie Portnoy (nee Pisoni) and Richard S. Feldman, he documented verbal conditioning without awareness through ingenious experiments in the clinic waiting room, finding that patients with schizophrenia differed from normal controls only in their rates of extinction. They then found that self-referencing s...

John T. Cacioppo (1951-2018).

This article memorializes John T. Cacioppo (1951-2018). Cacioppo was the cofounder of the field of social neuroscience and was well known for his transformative work demonstrating how social isolation and loneliness affect well-being. He was also a national leader on matters related to science and health policy. At the University of Chicago, he was the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor of Psychology, where he served as director of the Social Psychology program and the Center for Cog...

Bernardo J. Carducci (1952-2018).

This article memorializes Bernardo J. Carducci (1952-2018). Bernie's interests in shyness blossomed when he founded and directed the Shyness Research Institute at IUS. His mission became helping shy people to develop more interaction options and build their confidence in order to become full participants in the world. Bernie was internationally recognized as an authority, resulting in wide-ranging interviews with, among others, , , BBC, , , and, appropriately, . His small treasured book, (1999) continues t...

Minor infractions are not minor: School infractions for minor misconduct may increase adolescents' defiant behavior and contribute to racial disparities in school discipline.

Although minor misconduct is normative in adolescence, such behavior may be met with punishment in American schools. As part of a punitive disciplinary approach, teachers may give adolescents official infractions for minor misconduct-that is, a minor infraction-presumably to deter future problem behavior. This article investigates three arguments that challenge the wisdom of this assumption and considers the potentially detrimental effects of minor infractions: (a) minor infractions increase, rather than de...


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