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02:11 EST 17th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 21 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.  BioPortfolio aims to publish relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with users selected topics.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,000+ from The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

De-intensified adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemoradiotherapy post transoral minimally invasive surgery for resectable HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.

More than 400,000 cases of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) are diagnosed every year worldwide and this is rising. Much of the increase has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive OPSCC patients are often younger and have significantly improved survival relative to HPV-negative patients. Traditional management of OPSCC has been with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, as this was shown to have similar survival to open surgery but with significantly lower morbidity. Techn...

Internet-based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults.

Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Many barriers limit treatment uptake, such as the limited number of qualified therapists to deliver the interventions, cost, and compliance issues, such as time off work, childcare, and transportation,...

Laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in critically ill adults.

Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is one of the most common bedside surgical procedures performed in critically ill adults, on intensive care units (ICUs), who require long-term ventilation. PDT is associated with relevant life-threatening complications: Cuff rupture or accidental extubation may lead to hypoxia, aspiration or loss of airway. Puncture of the oesophagus, or creating a false passage during dilatation or replacement of the tracheostomy tube, can lead to pneumothorax or emphysema. Wou...

Organisation of health services for preventing and treating pressure ulcers.

Pressure ulcers, which are a localised injury to the skin, or underlying tissue, or both, occur when people are unable to reposition themselves to relieve pressure on bony prominences. Pressure ulcers are often difficult to heal, painful, expensive to manage and have a negative impact on quality of life. While individual patient safety and quality care stem largely from direct healthcare practitioner-patient interactions, each practitioner-patient wound-care contact may be constrained or enhanced by healthc...

Angioplasty versus stenting for infrapopliteal arterial lesions in chronic limb-threatening ischaemia.

Chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) that includes chronic ischaemic rest pain or ischaemic skin lesions, ulcers, or gangrene for longer than two weeks. The severity of the disease depends on the extent of arterial stenosis and the availability of collateral circulation. Treatment for CLTI aims to relieve ischaemic pain, heal ischaemic ulcers, prevent limb loss, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. CLTI due to occlusive disease in the in...

Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in adults and children with sepsis or septic shock.

Sepsis and septic shock are potentially life-threatening complications of infection that are associated with high morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Fluid therapy is regarded as a crucial intervention during initial treatment of sepsis. Whether conservative or liberal fluid therapy can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock remains unclear.

Implantable cardiac defibrillators for people with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

There is evidence that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention in people with an ischaemic cardiomyopathy improves survival rate. The evidence supporting this intervention in people with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy is not as definitive, with the recently published DANISH trial finding no improvement in survival rate. A systematic review of all eligible studies was needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of using ICDs for primary prevention in people with non-ischaemic cardiomy...

Dressings and topical agents for preventing pressure ulcers.

Pressure ulcers, localised injuries to the skin or underlying tissue, or both, occur when people cannot reposition themselves to relieve pressure on bony prominences. These wounds are difficult to heal, painful, expensive to manage and have a negative impact on quality of life. Prevention strategies include nutritional support and pressure redistribution. Dressing and topical agents aimed at prevention are also widely used, however, it remains unclear which, if any, are most effective. This is the first upd...

Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Researchers have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from oily fish (long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as from plants (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) benefit cardiovascular health. Guidelines recommend increasing omega-3-rich foods, and sometimes supplementation, but recent trials have not confirmed this.

Oral and intrauterine progestogens for atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecologic malignancy in the world and develops through preliminary stages of endometrial hyperplasia. Atypical endometrial hyperplasia suggests a significant pre-malignant state with frank progression to endometrial carcinoma, and tends to occur at a young age. Oral progestins have been used as conservative treatment in young women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, but they are associated with poor tolerability and side effects ...

Inhaled steroids with and without regular salmeterol for asthma: serious adverse events.

Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between use of beta₂-agonists and increased asthma mortality. Much debate has surrounded possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta₂-agonists (LABAs) are safe, particularly when used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). This is an update of a Cochrane Review that now includes data from two large trials including 11,679 adults and 6208 children; both were mandated by the US Food and Drug Administrat...

Hysteroscopy for treating subfertility associated with suspected major uterine cavity abnormalities.

Observational studies suggest higher pregnancy rates after the hysteroscopic removal of endometrial polyps, submucous fibroids, uterine septum or intrauterine adhesions, which are present in 10% to 15% of women seeking treatment for subfertility.

Acupuncture and related interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compressive neuropathic disorder at the level of the wrist. Acupuncture and other methods that stimulate acupuncture points, such as electroacupuncture, auricular acupuncture, laser acupuncture, moxibustion, and acupressure, are used in treating CTS. Acupuncture has been recommended as a potentially useful treatment for CTS, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. We used Cochrane methodology to assess the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised trials of acupuncture...

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection and treatment is key to improving survival; however, anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against appropriate levels of referral and excision of benign lesions. Used in conjunction with clinical or dermoscopic suspicion of malignancy, or both, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may reduce...

Dermoscopy, with and without visual inspection, for diagnosing melanoma in adults.

Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Although history-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician are usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer, dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist diagnosis by specialist clinicians and is increasingly used in primary care settings. Dermoscopy is a magnification techniq...

High-frequency ultrasound for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Early, accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of ben...

Visual inspection for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. History-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician is usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer. Establishing the accuracy of visual inspection alone is critical to understating the potential contribution of additional tests to assist in the diagnosis of melanoma.

Smartphone applications for triaging adults with skin lesions that are suspicious for melanoma.

Melanoma accounts for a small proportion of all skin cancer cases but is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths. Early detection and treatment can improve survival. Smartphone applications are readily accessible and potentially offer an instant risk assessment of the likelihood of malignancy so that the right people seek further medical attention from a clinician for more detailed assessment of the lesion. There is, however, a risk that melanomas will be missed and treatment delayed if the applicat...

Teledermatology for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of...

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management and improve morbidity and survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually a localised skin cancer but with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma are higher risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. When used in conjunction with clinical or dermoscopic suspicion of malignancy, or both, reflectance ...

Visual inspection and dermoscopy, alone or in combination, for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management, to reduce morbidity and to improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is almost always a localised skin cancer with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas a minority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and invasive melanomas are higher-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and cause death. Dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist specialist clinicians in ...

Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing basal cell carcinoma and other skin cancers in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management, reduce morbidity and improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised to the skin but has potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, while cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma have a much higher potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. Exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive test that uses the Tzanck smear technique to identify disease by examining the st...

Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benig...

Computer-assisted diagnosis techniques (dermoscopy and spectroscopy-based) for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary ...

Pre-emptive and preventive opioids for postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery.

Postoperative pain is a common consequence of surgery and can have deleterious effects. It has been suggested that the administration of opioid analgesia before a painful stimulus may improve pain control. This can be done in two ways. We defined 'preventive opioids' as opioids administered before incision and continued postoperatively, and 'pre-emptive opioids' as opioids given before incision but not continued postoperatively. Both pre-emptive and preventive analgesia involve the initiation of an analgesi...


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