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20:11 EST 18th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 444 from The International journal on drug policy

Editing the International Journal of Drug Policy.

An assessment of the limits of detection, sensitivity and specificity of three devices for public health-based drug checking of fentanyl in street-acquired samples.

Fentanyl has caused rapid increases in US and Canadian overdose deaths, yet its presence in illicit drugs is often unknown to consumers. This study examined the validity in identifying the presence of fentanyl of three portable devices that could be used in providing drug checking services and drug supply surveillance: fentanyl test strips, a hand-held Raman Spectrometer, and a desktop Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer.

Global systematic review and ecological analysis of HIV in people who inject drugs: National population sizes and factors associated with HIV prevalence.

People who inject drugs (PWID) are at elevated risk of HIV infection. Data on population sizes of PWID living with HIV are needed to inform the implementation of prevention, treatment and care programs. We estimated national population sizes of people who recently (past 12 months) injected drugs living with HIV and evaluated ecological associations with HIV prevalence in PWID.

"Divergences and commonalities between the US opioid crisis and prescription medicine mis/use in West Africa".

The reported increase in the non-medical use of opioid prescription medication in West Africa and Middle East coinciding with the ongoing problems in North America has moved the International Narcotic Control Board and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to talk about a global opioid crisis requiring global solutions. The measures proposed include the strengthening of the global control system by adding the opioid analgesic tramadol to the list of internationally scheduled substances. Yet North Ame...

The relationships between chronic pain and changes in health with cannabis consumption patterns.

Pain is the most common reason endorsed by patients seeking medical cannabis. Given the nature of chronic pain, it is particularly important to understand consumption patterns for patients who use cannabis for chronic health conditions to evaluate how frequency of use might impact overall health and functioning. This analysis examines whether levels of chronic pain were associated with cannabis consumption patterns, after controlling for patient-level differences in demographics.

Social domains of discrimination against people who inject drugs: Links with health and wellbeing.

People who inject drugs frequently experience discrimination. However, little is known about how discrimination experienced in different social domains is linked to health and wellbeing.

Predictors of work engagement among Australian non-government drug and alcohol employees: Implications for policy and practice.

The alcohol and other drugs (AOD) workforce faces multiple challenges including stigma, limited resources, ideological conflicts and complex demands. An engaged, supported and stable workforce is essential for optimal service provision, quality care, effective harm reduction implementation and cost efficiency. However little research has examined factors that impact worker engagement in the AOD sector. To inform policy and practice on cost efficient service provision and effective workforce development, thi...

Message framing to reduce stigma and increase support for policies to improve the wellbeing of people with prior drug convictions.

Individuals with drug convictions are at heightened risk of poor health, due in part to punitive public policies. This study tests the effects of message frames on: (1) public stigma towards individuals with felony drug convictions and (2) support for four policies in the United States (U.S.) affecting social determinants of health: mandatory minimum sentencing laws, 'ban-the-box' employment laws, and restrictions to supplemental nutrition and public housing programs.

Polysubstance use in rural West Virginia: Associations between latent classes of drug use, overdose, and take-home naloxone.

Rural communities in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the opioid crisis. Little research has explored the relationship between polysubstance use and overdose experiences among people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural communities. We sought to identify classes of polysubstance drug use among rural PWID and evaluate the associations between polysubstance drug use classes, recent overdose experiences, and receipt of take-home naloxone (THN).

Women's utilization of housing-based overdose prevention sites in Vancouver, Canada: An ethnographic study.

In response to a fentanyl-driven overdose crisis, low-threshold supervised consumption sites, termed overdose prevention sites (OPS), have been rapidly implemented in Vancouver, Canada. Since approximately 88% of fatal overdoses in the province occur indoors, OPS have been integrated into select non-profit-operated single room accommodations (SRA) housing. We examined the social-structural features of these housing-based OPS (HOPS) on women's overdose risk.

Estimating the size of crack cocaine users in France: Methods for an elusive population with high heterogeneity.

Despite several sources corroborating an expanding market and increased visibility and greater diversity in users' profiles, very little is known about the number of crack cocaine users in France.

A cost-effectiveness analysis of primary versus hospital-based specialist care for direct acting antiviral hepatitis C treatment.

Hepatitis C virus elimination may be possible by scaling up direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Due to the safety and simplicity of DAA treatment, primary care-based treatment delivery is now feasible, efficacious and may be cheaper than hospital-based specialist care. In this paper, we use Prime Study data - a randomised controlled trial comparing the uptake of DAA treatment between primary and hospital-based care settings amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) - to estimate the cost of initiating tre...

The impact of rurality on opioid-related harms: A systematic review of qualitative research.

Over the past decade, there has been mounting recognition that opioid use and related mortality and morbidity is a significant public health problem in rural, non-urban areas across the globe. Taking what has been termed the 'opioid crisis' as a starting off point, this article aims to systematically review the qualitative literature on the ways in which rurality shapes the risk for opioid-related harm.

"It's like super structural" - Overdose experiences of youth who use drugs and police in three non-metropolitan cities across British Columbia.

Youth who use drugs (YWUD) are vulnerable to experience or encounter drug related overdose deaths. Fentanyl has increased the risks, calling greater attention to overdose. In response, there have been increases in harm reduction services and policies such as the Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act (GSDOA) which exempts people who witness an overdose and call 9-1-1 from being charged for possession of drugs. However, fear of police continues to be a barrier to calling 9-1-1. This paper focuses on the experience...

MDMA-related deaths in Australia 2000 to 2018.

MDMA markets have undergone substantial changes internationally, with increasing manufacture of high purity MDMA recorded. This study examined trends in MDMA-related deaths in Australia, investigating characteristics, circumstances and toxicology of these deaths.

Emerging prospects for non-medical cannabis legalisation in New Zealand: An initial view and contextualization.

New Zealand may be the next national jurisdiction where non-medical cannabis use and supply will be legalized. While the current New Zealand government's plans for possible cannabis legalization were rather unclear for some time, initial details on proposed key parameters (for example, age limits, production and supply modes, use restrictions) of a possible cannabis legalization framework have recently emerged. We provide initial basic examination and contextualization of the proposal's select key details, ...

Frequency of injecting among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

People who inject drugs (PWID) do so at varying frequencies. More frequent injecting is associated with skin and soft tissue infection, blood borne viruses, and overdose. The aims of this review are to estimate the prevalence of injecting frequency among PWID and compare these estimates to current needle-syringe distribution coverage estimates, and identify socio-demographic and risk characteristics, and harms associated with daily or more injecting.

Opioid-related deaths in Europe: Strategies for a comprehensive approach to address a major public health concern.

Use of illicit opioids and misuse of prescription opioids are the main causes of drug-related deaths across the world, and the continuing rise in opioid-related mortality, especially affecting North America, Australia and Europe, is a public health challenge. Strategies that may help to decrease the high levels of opioid-related mortality and morbidity and improve care across Europe include risk assessment and interventions to improve the use of opioid analgesics, e.g. prescription drug-monitoring programme...

Maintaining the healthy body: Blood management and hepatitis C prevention among men who inject performance and image-enhancing drugs.

Australia's ambitious aim to 'eliminate' hepatitis C as a public health concern by 2030 requires researchers, policy makers and health practitioners to engage with populations rarely identified as a priority. Men who inject performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) are one such population, yet research suggests they have low rates of knowledge about hepatitis C. Although rates of needle-sharing in this group are thought to be low, other risks of blood-to-blood contact exist due to the use of large-gauge...

The Dark Web and cannabis use in the United States: Evidence from a big data research design.

Cannabis is one of the most commonly sold drugs on cryptomarkets. Because of the anonymity-granting functions of Tor, no study has traced the within-country effect of the Dark Web on cannabis consumption patterns. This article uses a big data research design to examine the association between revealed interest in the Dark Web and self-reported cannabis use within US states from 2011 when Silk Road launched to 2015 when Operation Onymous shuttered nine markets.

The price and mark up of pharmaceutical drugs supplied on the black market.

Research examining illicit drug markets has shown that price affects consumption and mark ups are extremely high. However, the economics of black market pharmaceutical supply remains unknown, despite increasing harms due to pharmaceuticals.

Estimated effect of US state syringe sale policy on source of last-used injection equipment.

Many people who inject drugs (PWID) lack access to a new sterile syringe each time they inject, with increased risk of injection-related harms, including spread of communicable diseases. In the United States (US), restricted access is largely due to state laws and policies regulating syringe access. Our aim in this US-focused study is to estimate variations in syringe acquisition behavior in relation to state-level syringe sale policies, drawing upon self-identified PWID in a nationally representative sampl...

Police-related barriers to harm reduction linked to non-fatal overdose amongst sex workers who use drugs: Results of a community-based cohort in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

High rates of overdose and overdose-related mortality in North America represent a pressing health and social concern. Women sex workers face severe health and social inequities, which have been linked to structural factors including negative police interactions; however, little is known regarding the burden of overdose or how policing impacts overdose risk amongst sex workers who use drugs. Given this, we aimed to explore the independent effects of experiencing police-related barriers to harm reduction on ...

Integration of harm reduction and treatment into care centres for substance use: The Barcelona model.

Help me fix: The provision of injection assistance at an unsanctioned overdose prevention site in Toronto, Canada.

There is an acute public health crisis from opioid-related poisoning and overdose in Canada. The Moss Park Overdose Prevention Site (MP-OPS) - an unsanctioned overdose prevention site - opened in a downtown park in Toronto in August 2017, when no other supervised consumption services existed in the province. As an unsanctioned site, MP-OPS was not constrained by federal rules prohibiting assisted injection, and provided a unique opportunity to examine assisted injection within a supervised setting. Our obje...

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