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There is an ongoing debate on whether and how fructose is involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A recent experimental study showed an increased intrahepatic triglycerides (IHTG) content in mice deficient for aldolase B (aldo B-/-), the enzyme that converts fructose-1-phosphate to triose phosphates.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common obesity-associated pathology characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, which can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity is associated with profound changes in gene expression patterns of the liver, which could contribute to the onset of comorbidities.
Obesity and its associated comorbidities are a recognized and growing public health issue. For a long time, obesity-associated effects on bone were considered to strengthen the bone mainly due to the known relationship between body weight and bone mass and the long-term weight-bearing load effect on bone. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity may not have a fully protective effect on the occurrence of fragility fractures. The goal of this article is to review updated information on t...
The relationship between age at natural menopause and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has yielded conflicting results, particularly when confounded by the presence of obesity. We therefore aimed to examine the association between age at natural menopause and development of T2DM, and the influence of postmenopausal obese status on this association.
Calcium intakes are commonly lower than the recommended levels and increasing calcium intake is often recommended for bone health.
In exercising women, energy deficiency can disrupt the balance of bone formation and resorption, resulting in bone loss and an altered rate of bone turnover, which may influence future bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk.
Improvement of imaging methods has led to more incidental adrenal tumor findings, especially adenomas. Routine hormonal evaluation uses only a few steroids to evaluate possible hormonal hypersecretion of these adenomas, but a wide spectrum of serum steroid hormone changes has not been published.
No studies have assessed the associations between air pollution exposure and vitamin D status in pregnant women.
The patterns of associations between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and mortality are still unclear.
Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with lower total testosterone. These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D deficiency is common and correctable. We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with lower total testosterone (T), using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology.
changes in bile flow after bariatric surgery may beneficially modulate secretion of insulin and incretins leading to diabetes remission. However, the exact mechanism(s) involved are still unclear. We here propose an alternative method to investigate the relation between alterations in physiological bile flow and insulin and incretin secretion by studying the changes in gut-pancreatic function in extrahepatic cholestasis in non-diabetic humans.
Modern management of differentiated thyroid cancer requires individualized care plans which tailor the intensity of therapy and follow-up to the estimated risks of recurrence and disease-specific mortality.
Obesity is associated with hypothyroidism and goiter.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and metabolic risks. Recent studies report glucocorticoid co-secretion as a relevant phenotype of PA, which could contribute to associated risks, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationship between autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) and glucose metabolism in PA has not been investigated.
Accumulating evidences suggest a link between adrenocortical zona glomerulosa and parathyroid gland through mechanisms that remain unexplored.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) was among the first genetic disorders included in newborn screening (NBS) programs worldwide, based on 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels in dried blood spots. However, the success of NBS for CAH is hampered by high rates of false positive (FP) rates, especially in preterm and low birth-weight infants.
The rapid pubertal height growth is unique to humans, but why do we have it? Although the spurt contributes 13-15% to the final adult height, we hypothesize that the biological significance of the high acromegalic levels of GH and IGF-I which are behind the pubertal growth spurt may primarily be to stimulate reproductive organs.
Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as a first-choice modality for tumor localization in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is widely used for functional imaging but the added diagnostic value is controversial.
The two major forms of circulating thyroid hormones (THs) are tri-iodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine (T4). T3 is regarded as the biologically active hormone since it binds to thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) with greater affinity than T4. However, it is currently unclear what structural mechanisms underlie this difference in affinity.
Middle-aged to elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit reduced functional connectivity and brain atrophy underlying cognitive decrements, however, little is known about brain abnormalities in young patients.
Telomere length may contribute to predisposition of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Long-term data on enzyme replacement treatment of hypophosphatasia (HPP) are limited.
The transcription factor RAX is a paired-type homeoprotein that plays a critical role in eye and forebrain development of vertebrate species. RAX knockout mice have anophthalmia, cleft palate, abnormal hypothalamus, and display perinatal lethality. In humans, homozygous or compound heterozygous RAX mutations are reported to cause bilateral micro/anophthalmia without consistent associated features.Congenital Hypopituitarism can be associated with various eye or craniofacial anomalies but the co-occurrence of...