PubMed Journal Database | The Journal of physiology RSS

13:18 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 409 from The Journal of physiology

From "De Motu Animalium" (1680) to "De Neuron Motorium Velocitate" (2019): towards a better understanding of how the nervous system drives muscles.

Challenging metabolic tissues with fructose: Tissue-specific and sex-specific responses.

Excessive consumption of free sugars (which typically includes a composite of glucose and fructose) is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic metabolic diseases including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Determining the utilisation, storage and fate of dietary sugars in metabolically relevant tissues is fundamental to understanding their contribution to metabolic disease risk. To date, the study of fructose metabolism has prima...

Maternal programming by hypoxia alters the molecular composition of the oviduct of her offspring, first pathway her grandchildren will transit: A potential novel pathway for intergenerational programming?

Is the fountain of youth in the gut microbiome?

The role of tonic glycinergic conductance in cerebellar granule cells signalling and the effect of gain-of-function mutation.

A T258F mutation of the glycine receptor increases the receptor affinity to endogenous agonists, modifies single-channel conductance and shapes response decay kinetics. Glycine receptors of cerebellar granule cells play their functional role not continuously, but when granule cell layer starts receiving high amount of excitatory inputs. Despite their relative scarcity, tonically active glycine receptors of cerebellar granule cells make a significant impact on action potential generation, inter-neuronal cros...

Chemosensitivity of Phox2b-expressing retrotrapezoid neurons is mediated in part by input from 5-HT neurons.

Neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and medullary serotonin (5-HT) neurons are both candidates for central CO /pH chemoreceptors, but it is not known how interactions between them influence their responses to pH. We found that RTN neurons in brain slices were stimulated by exogenous 5-HT and by heteroexchange release of endogenous 5-HT, and these responses were blocked by antagonists of 5-HT receptors. The pH response of RTN neurons in brain slices was markedly reduced by the same antagonists of 5-H...

When bigger isn't better: understanding the anabolic resistance of obese skeletal muscle.

Visualization of astrocytic intracellular Ca mobilization.

Astrocytes generate robust intracellular Ca concentration changes (Ca signals), which are assumed to regulate astrocytic functions that play crucial roles in the regulation of brain functions. One frequently used strategy for exploring the role of astrocytic Ca signaling is the use of mice deficient in the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP R2). These IP R2-knockout (KO) mice are reportedly devoid of Ca mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in astrocytes. However, they have shown no...

Changes in cellular Ca and Na regulation during the progression towards heart failure in the guinea pig.

During compensated hypertrophy in vivo fractional shortening (FS) remains constant until HF develops when FS decreases from 70% to 39%. Compensated hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in I and a decrease in Na /K ATPase current. These changes persist as HF develops. SR Ca content increases during compensated hypertrophy then decreases in HF. In healthy cells, increases in SR Ca content and Ca transients can be achieved by the same amount of inhibition of the Na /K ATPase as measured in the diseased ce...

Acute high intensity interval exercise reduces colon cancer cell growth.

Physical activity is associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer mortality. However, the mechanisms by which exercise mediates this antioncogenic effect are not clear.

Exercising Caution: Is there a role for exercise testing in the HCM population?

The role of autophagy and lipid catabolism in enhancing cold stress resistance in zebrafish.

GABA is a Modulator, Rather than a Classical Transmitter, in the MNTB-LSO Sound Localization Circuit.

The LSO, a brainstem hub involved in sound localization, integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the ipsilateral and the contralateral ear, respectively. In gerbils and rats, inhibition to the LSO reportedly shifts from GABAergic to glycinergic within the first three postnatal weeks. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for synaptic GABA signalling during this time window in mouse LSO principal neurons. However, we found that presynaptic GABA Rs modulate Ca influx into MNTB axon terminals, resulting ...

PKA phosphorylation underlies functional recruitment of sarcolemmal SK2 channels in ventricular myocytes from hypertrophic hearts.

Small-conductance Ca -activated K (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Using a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic banding, we found that functional upregu...

You are as fast as your motor neurons: Speed of recruitment and maximal discharge of motor neurons determine the maximal rate of force development in humans.

We propose and validate a method to accurately identify the activity of populations of motor neurons during contractions at maximal rate of force development in humans. The behaviour of the motor neuron pool during rapid voluntary contractions in humans is presented. We show with this approach that the motor neuron recruitment speed and maximal motor unit discharge rate largely explains the individual ability in generating rapid force contractions. The results also indicate that the synaptic inputs received...

Neuronal Ca signalling at rest and during spontaneous neurotransmission.

Action potential driven neuronal signaling drives several electrical and biochemical processes in the nervous system. However, neurons can maintain synaptic communication and signaling under resting conditions independent of activity. Importantly, these processes are regulated by Ca signals that occur at rest. Several studies have suggested that opening of voltage-gated Ca channels near resting membrane potentials, activation of NMDA receptors in the absence of depolarization or Ca release from intracellula...

Postnatal undernutrition alters adult female mouse cardiac structure and function leading to limited exercise capacity.

Impaired growth during fetal life can reprogramme heart development and increase the risk for long-term cardiovascular dysfunction. It is uncertain if the developmental window during which the heart is vulnerable to reprogramming as a result of inadequate nutrition extends into the postnatal period. We found that adult female mice that had been undernourished only from birth to 3 wk of age had disproportionately smaller hearts compared to males with thinner ventricle walls and more mononucleated cardiomyoc...

Mid-life crisis or mid-life gains: 2 years of high-intensity exercise is highly beneficial for the middle-aged heart.

The increase in muscle force after 4 weeks of strength training is mediated by adaptations in motor unit recruitment and rate coding.

Previous studies have indicated that several weeks of strength training is sufficient to elicit significant adaptations in the neural drive sent to the muscles. There are few data, however, on the changes elicited by strength training in the recruitment and rate coding of motor units during voluntary contractions. We show for the first time that the discharge characteristics of motor units in the tibialis anterior muscle tracked across the intervention are changed by 4 weeks of strength training with isome...

Calcium modulation of cardiac sodium channels.

Modification of voltage-gated Na channel (Na ) function by intracellular calcium ([Ca ] ) has been a topic of much controversy. Early studies relied on measuring Na function in the absence or presence of [Ca ] , and generated seemingly disparate results. Subsequent investigations revealed the mechanism(s) of [Ca ] driven Na modulation are complex and involve multiple accessory proteins. The Ca sensing protein Calmodulin (CaM) has a central role in tuning Na function to [Ca ] , but the mechanism has been obs...

Cardiomyocyte substructure reverts to an immature phenotype during heart failure.

As reactivation of the foetal gene program has been implicated in pathological remodelling during heart failure (HF), we examined whether cardiomyocyte subcellular structure and function revert to an immature phenotype during this disease. Surface and internal membrane structures appeared gradually during development, and returned to a juvenile state during HF. Similarly, dyadic junctions between the cell membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum were progressively 'packed' with L-type Ca2+ channels and Ryanodine...

The Role of PHOX2B-derived astrocytes in chemosensory control of breathing and sleep homeostasis.

The embryonic PHOX2B-progenitor domain generates neuronal and glial cells which together are involved in chemosensory control of breathing and sleep homeostasis. Ablating PHOX2B-derived astrocytes significantly contributes to secondary hypoxic respiratory depression as well as abnormalities in sleep homeostasis. PHOX2B-derived astrocyte ablation results in axonal pathologies in the retrotrapezoid nucleus.

Vasodilatory function in human skeletal muscle feed arteries with advancing age: the role of adropin.

This study sought to determine the impact of aging on endogenous adropin levels in human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) and the role of adropin in age-related vascular dysfunction. Adropin protein expression falls progressively with advancing age in the human peripheral vasculature and endothelial-dependent vasodilation, typically attenuated with age, was strongly correlated with SMFA adropin protein levels. Adropin incubation restored age-related endothelial-dependent vasodilatory dysfunction and in...

Motor units as tools to evaluate profile of human Renshaw inhibition.

To uncover synaptic profile of Renshaw inhibition on motoneurons we stimulated thick motor axons and recorded from voluntarily-activated motor units. Stimuli generated direct motor response on the whole muscle and an inhibitory response in active motor units. We have estimated the profile of Renshaw inhibition indirectly using the response of motor unit discharge rates to the stimulus. We have put forward an idea of extrapolation which may be used to determine genuine synaptic potentials as they develop on ...

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy & exercise: a need for more information.

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