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Implants and their technological advances have been a critical component of musculoskeletal care for almost a century. Modern implants are designed to enhance bone ingrowth, promote soft-tissue healing, and prevent infection. Porous metals and short-stem fixation devices have rendered previously unreconstructable bony deficits reconstructable. Stem cells, growth factors, and novel biocompatible compounds have been designed to promote and enhance soft tissue attachment to implants. Antimicrobial modification...
Despite the proven success of anterior cervical surgery (ACS) postoperative issues can arise, with retropharyngeal hematoma (RH) being one of the most feared. A recent USA Today article highlighted the failed management and subsequent death of patients developing RH after ACS. The article calls into question the safety of performing ACS in an outpatient setting.
Limb-length inequality in a child can be a complex condition for patients, parents, and medical providers. Managing these patients and explaining the treatment options to families requires knowledge of the potential risks associated with leaving a discrepancy untreated and a thorough understanding of skeletal growth. The provider must also be familiar with the available growth prediction methods as treatment is influenced by the anticipated discrepancy at skeletal maturity. This article provides an overview...
Osteoporosis, often called a silent disease, is a systemic condition of bone as a result of loss of bone mass and deterioration of its microarchitecture. The result is weakened bone, leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. An estimated 9 million osteoporotic fractures occur every year worldwide. However, the true incidence of osteoporotic fractures is unknown because many are undetected. Astoundingly, this epidemic equates to an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds. Orthopaedic surgeons need t...
Diaphyseal tibia fractures in the pediatric population have dynamic treatment strategies that depend on injury pattern, mechanism, patient skeletal maturity and size. Treatment strategies include closed reduction and cast immobilization, flexible nails, uniplanar or multiplanar external fixation or plate osteosynthesis. Accepted parameters for sagittal and coronal alignment vary based on age and potential for remodeling, although all fractures should have minimal rotational malalignment and less than 1 cm o...
Hip dysplasia is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), especially in those children with notable functional impairment. Severity of hip dysplasia has been shown to correlate with higher Gross Motor Function Classification System levels. Migration percentage measured on AP pelvis radiographs is the key radiographic measure quantifying hip displacement in CP. Hip surveillance programs for children with CP exist in Europe, Australia, and parts of Canada and have been adopted as standard of care. These p...
To evaluate the effects of a trauma performance improvement project involving standardized protocols for the administration of antibiotics in open fractures at a level one trauma center. This study specifically evaluated the protocol's efficacy for improving the timing of delivery and appropriate therapy administration and sought to identify factors that lead to the delay in antibiotic delivery.
Recalcitrant carpal tunnel syndrome presents a clinical challenge. Potential etiologies of persistent or recurrent symptoms after primary carpal tunnel release include incomplete nerve decompression, secondary sites of nerve compression, unrecognized anatomic variations, irreversible nerve pathology associated with chronic compression neuropathy, perineural adhesions, conditions associated with secondary nerve compression, iatrogenic nerve injury, or inaccurate preoperative diagnosis. Understanding the pert...
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is increasingly used to reduce blood loss in lower extremity arthroplasty, but limited data exist for its effectiveness in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty. We aimed to use national data to assess the frequency of use and effectiveness of TXA in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.
Bone marrow lesions of the knee in patients with osteoarthritis (OA-BML) are an important clinical entity that may explain progressive pain, decreased quality of life, and impaired function. MRI of OA-BMLs demonstrates a region of subchondral bone with hyperintense marrow signal on T2-weighted images. Histopathology retrieval studies have demonstrated that these lesions correlate with microdamage of the trabecular bone, and subsequently, this leads to a vicious cycle of subchondral bone attrition, attempts ...
Fat embolism (FE) occurs frequently after trauma and during orthopaedic procedures involving manipulation of intramedullary contents. Classically characterized as a triad of pulmonary distress, neurologic symptoms, and petechial rash, the clinical entity of FE syndrome is much less common. Both mechanical and biochemical pathophysiologic theories have been proposed with contributions of vascular obstruction and the inflammatory response to embolized fat and trauma. Recent studies have described the relation...
The Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a scoring tool that allows comparisons between patients with rare conditions and more common ailments, or the general US population. PROMIS outcomes were compared between the limb salvage and amputee patients for nonmetastatic sarcomas to the US population.
Distal femur fractures occur in a periarticular fracture pattern and disproportionately afflict an aging population. Although the goals of treatment have not changed, the emergence of new surgical techniques and devices has recently been developed and refined to treat this challenging fracture pattern. Treatment options include open reduction and internal fixation with periarticular locking plates, intramedullary nails, or distal femur replacement. Despite rapid adoption, these modern solutions display a co...
Tardy ulnar nerve palsy is a chronic clinical condition characterized by a delayed onset ulnar neuropathy after an injury to the elbow. Typically, tardy ulnar nerve palsy occurs as a consequence of nonunion of pediatric lateral condyle fractures at the elbow, which eventually lead to a cubitus valgus deformity. While the child grows, the deformity worsens and the ulnar nerve is gradually stretched until classic symptoms of ulnar nerve neuropathy appear. Other childhood elbow trauma has also been associated ...
Participation of women in medicine has increased markedly in recent decades, but gender disparities still exist, particularly in academic medicine. To provide insight into the gender gap, specifically in academic orthopaedic sports medicine, we investigated the relationship between gender and authorship in orthopaedic sports literature from 1972 to 2018.
The Rule of 57 is an easy method for planning osteotomies and calculating translations when correcting spine and limb deformities.
Upper extremity gunshot wounds result in notable morbidity for the orthopaedic trauma patient. Critical neurovascular structures are particularly at risk. The fractures are often comminuted and may be associated with a variable degree of soft-tissue injury. The literature lacks consensus regarding antibiotic selection and duration, and indications for surgical débridement. Bullets and/or bullet fragments should be removed in cases of plumbism, intra-articular location, nerve impingement, location within a ...
Large cohort studies evaluating cardiac complications in patients undergoing spine surgery are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, timing, risk factors, and effect of cardiac complications in spine surgery by using a national database, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.
Dysphagia and dysphonia are the most common complications after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). No consensus system exists currently in the spine literature for the classification of these conditions postoperatively.
Treatment of anterior pelvic ring injuries involves both acute stabilization during the initial resuscitation and definitive fixation. Definitive management has evolved substantially over the past 40 years with improved patient mobilization and long-term outcomes. Although its use has recently declined, external fixation remains a favorable option in certain situations. Symphyseal plating is the preferred technique for stabilization of symphyseal diastasis because of superior stability and low morbidity. Ra...
The LigaSure system has been successfully used in thoracic and abdominal surgery. However, to date, its use in the resection of sarcomas has not been systematically studied. We aimed to determine whether the use of the LigaSure system reduces blood loss and blood transfusion volumes in sarcoma surgery.
Surgical management of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) poses a unique challenge to orthopaedic surgeons due to increased operative and perioperative risk. Studies evaluating perioperative complications among patients with SCD undergoing orthopaedic surgery have been limited. We sought to review the clinical characteristics and perioperative complications in our patients with SCD who required orthopaedic surgery.
It is unknown whether more expensive total knee prostheses provide better improvements in patient-determined outcomes compared with less expensive prostheses. A physician-owned distributorship (POD) was created with a goal to provide lower cost implants to hospitals as an alternative to higher cost prostheses sold by the large orthopaedic implant companies. The hypothesis was that lower cost total knee prostheses would have equivalent outcomes, while resulting in lower costs to the hospitals purchasing them...
Radial nerve injuries are among the most common major traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Recent literature has updated our knowledge of aspects ranging from radial nerve anatomy to treatment options. Observation and tendon transfers were, and still are, the mainstays of management. However, the improved outcomes of nerve repair even 5 months after injury have changed the treatment algorithm. Nerve repair techniques using conduits, wraps, autograft, and allograft allow tension-free coaptations to improve s...
Orthopaedic surgery can be a physically demanding occupation with high rates of fatigue and burnout. Fatigue has been shown to affect surgeon performance with higher rates of errors in fatigued surgeons. The metabolic cost of performing surgery has yet to be quantified. A better understanding of these costs may provide insights into surgeon fatigue and its effect on patient safety.