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Cutaneous disseminated mycobacteriosis is rare in dogs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the slowly growing mycobacterial species Mycobacterium nebraskense has not been described before in this species.
The fungal culture toothbrush method is a common method for obtaining material for fungal cultures to diagnose dermatophytosis. The optimal technique for inoculation onto the agar surface has not been studied.
Limited information is available for dogs on threshold concentrations (TCs), and the protein composition of common allergenic extracts produced by different manufacturers.
Allergic pruritus and urticaria in the horse are challenging for veterinarians and owners; little is known about their long-term management.
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an emerging cause of opportunistic infections. Deep pyoderma associated with Bcc infection has been reported previously in dogs receiving ciclosporin.
Canine otitis externa is a common disease. Cytological evaluation of otic exudate is a useful diagnostic test to direct and monitor treatment for otitis externa. One method of collecting ear cytological specimens utilizes a cotton-tipped swab inserted into the vertical ear canal. A proposed alternative method is to aspirate exudate from the deep horizontal canal using a rubber tube.
English bulldogs (EBDs) are considered to commonly show signs of pododermatitis and gastrointestinal (GI) disease.
Otitis externa is a common multifactorial disease with a prevalence in dogs as high as 10-20%. In humans, the diversity of the cutaneous mycobiota appears to increase in diseased states, whereas one canine study identified a decrease in diversity of the cutaneous mycobiota in atopic dogs compared to healthy individuals.
Morphological differences between mammalian hair types are useful for species distinction. Differences in animal hair structure are observed between species, whereas there may be breed differences within a species.
Cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) are gaining recognition as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disorders.
Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans.
Cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR) is diagnosed by performing an elimination diet trial utilizing prescription or home-cooked diets followed by provocative challenge.
Feline herpesvirus ulcerative dermatitis is an uncommon skin disease in cats, with a predominantly facial distribution characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils and, occasionally, predominant neutrophils.
Adverse food reaction (AFR) is diagnosed with a two month elimination diet (ED), followed by challenge with the original food.
Percutaneous testing (PT) is preferred to intradermal testing in humans for the in vivo identification of allergen hypersensitivity, but the methodology has not been well described for use in dogs with atopic dermatitis.
Interleukin (IL)-33 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis, a Type 2 T helper cell (Th2)-associated disease. In humans, IL-33 mediates its biological effects through the receptor suppression of tumourigenicity 2 (ST2), which is preferentially expressed on Th2 cells. The effects of IL-33 on canine Th2 cells are unclear.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase protein in dogs and may be an inflammatory marker of autoimmune diseases.
Acute radiation-induced dermatitis (ARID) is a common sequela of radiation therapy and carries the risk of secondary bacterial skin infection. No standard of care exists for managing canine ARID and evidence-based guidelines are lacking; however, prophylactic use of antibiotics is common.
Canine papillomaviruses can affect the mucous membranes and skin of young, old and immunocompromised dogs. Most lesions regress spontaneously over a four to eight week interval; however, in some cases the lesions may persist or progress. Cryotherapy is used as a treatment for papillomavirus induced lesions in veterinary practice but there is limited published evidence regarding its use.
Appropriate allergen threshold concentrations (TCs) for intradermal testing (IDT) have not been established in horses for many pollen and mould allergens.
Fluralaner and afoxolaner are isoxazolines licensed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations. Isoxazolines have also shown efficacy for treatment of demodicosis. Nothing is known about the impact of these compounds on the populations of Demodex in healthy dogs.
The cellular mechanisms used to counteract or limit damage caused by exposure of marine vertebrates to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are poorly understood. Cetaceans are vulnerable because they lack protective skin appendages and are obliged to surface continuously to breathe, thus being exposed repeatedly to UV light. Although molecular mechanisms of photoprotection of cetaceans have been studied, there is limited knowledge about their epidermal structure and photoprotective effectors.
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a lymphocytotoxic immunosuppressive agent used in human and companion animal medicine for the treatment of immune-mediated disease. Mycophenolate mofetil is reported to have reduced myelotoxicity and hepatotoxicity when compared to azathioprine.
Infestation of wounds with the larvae of Callophorid flies is relatively common in countries where these parasites are found. The most common species associated with infections in Southeast Asia is Chrysomya bezziana (Ch. bezziana), the Old World screw worm. Treatment consists of either subcutaneous injection of ivermectin or oral administration of nitenpyram combined with aggressive tissue debridement under general anaesthesia.
The diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) remains challenging due to the lack of a simple biomarker or metabolic profile. In human medicine, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an analytical technique used for several diseases. It requires a small amount of sample and allows the identification of structural moieties of biomolecules on the basis of their infrared absorption, with limited sample pretreatment.