Advertisement

Topics

PubMed Journal Database | Virology RSS

04:12 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 741 from Virology

Discovery of a highly divergent hepadnavirus in shrews from China.

Limited sampling means that relatively little is known about the diversity and evolutionary history of mammalian members of the Hepadnaviridae (genus Orthohepadnavirus). An important case in point are shrews, the fourth largest group of mammals, but for which there is limited knowledge on the role they play in viral evolution and emergence. Here, we report the discovery of a novel shrew hepadnavirus. The newly discovered virus, denoted shrew hepatitis B virus (SHBV), is divergent to be considered a new spec...

A complete protocol for whole-genome sequencing of virus from clinical samples: Application to coronavirus OC43.

Genome sequencing of virus has become a useful tool for better understanding of virus pathogenicity and epidemiological surveillance. Obtaining virus genome sequence directly from clinical samples is still a challenging task due to the low load of virus genetic material compared to the host DNA, and to the difficulty to get an accurate genome assembly. Here we introduce a complete sequencing and analyzing protocol called V-ASAP for Virus Amplicon Sequencing Assembly Pipeline. Our protocol is able to generat...

Targeted mutational analysis to unravel the complexity of African horse sickness virus NS3 function in mammalian cells.

The African horse sickness virus non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is involved in the final stages of infection. To gain insight into the function of different NS3 domains, we generated reverse genetics-derived mutants, each expressing a modified version of the protein. A functional comparison of these mutants to the wild-type virus in mammalian cells indicated the variable contribution of the different domains to the cytopathic effect and in ensuring effective virus trafficking and release. The transmembrane ...

Local structural changes of the influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein complex by single mutations in the specific residues involved in efficient genome packaging.

The influenza A virus genome consists of eight single-stranded negative-sense RNA segments. The noncoding regions located at the 3'- and 5'- ends of each segment are necessary for genome packaging, and the terminal coding regions are required to precisely bundle the eight segments. However, the nucleotide residues important for genome bundling are not defined. Here, we introduced premature termination codons in the hemagglutinin (HA) or matrix protein 2 (M2) gene and constructed virus libraries containing r...

Down-regulation of hepatitis delta virus super-infection in the woodchuck model.

Mechanisms mediating clearance of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are poorly understood. This study analyzed in detail profound down-regulation of HDV infection in the woodchuck model. Super-infection with HDV of woodchucks chronically infected with HBV-related woodchuck hepatitis virus produced two patterns. In the first, HDV viremia had a sharp peak followed by a considerable decline, and initial rise of HDV virions' infectivity followed by abrupt infectivity loss. In the second, HDV titer rose and later disp...

The BOLF1 gene is necessary for effective Epstein-Barr viral infectivity.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and several malignancies. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic protein, BOLF1, which is conserved throughout the herpesvirus family and is reported to be a virion tegument protein. We first constructed BOLF1-deficient viruses using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. Although the loss of BOLF1 had almost no effect on viral protein expression, DNA synthesis, or extracellular progeny release, EBV infectivi...

Latency-associated nuclear antigen inhibits lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by regulating let-7a/RBPJ signaling.

Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the key factor in the establishment and maintenance of latency of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). A cellular protein, recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region (RBPJ), is essential for the lytic reactivation of KSHV. However, whether RBPJ expression is regulated by KSHV is not clear. Here, we show that LANA upregulates let-7a and its primary transcripts in parallel with its reduction of RBPJ expression. An increase in ...

Global phylodynamics of Echovirus 30 revealed differential behavior among viral lineages.

Echovirus 30 (E30) is an important causative agent of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Despite this, the global and regional dispersion patterns, especially in South America, are still largely unknown. We performed an in-depth analysis of global E30 population dynamics, by using the VP1 sequences of 79 strains isolated in Argentina, between 1998 and 2012, and 856 sequences from GenBank. Furthermore, the 3D regions of 329 sequences were analyzed to study potential recombination events. E30 evolution was charact...

Claudin-1 inhibits human parainfluenza virus type 2 dissemination.

Tight junctions enable epithelial cells to form physical barriers that act as an innate immune defense against respiratory infection. However, the involvement of tight junction molecules in paramyxovirus infections, which include various respiratory pathogens, has not been examined in detail. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) infects airway epithelial cells and causes respiratory illness. In the present study, we found that hPIV2 infection of cultured cells induces expression of claudin-1 (CLDN1), an...

A high-throughput screen for genes essential for PRRSV infection using a piggyBac-based system.

In this study, using a dual-functional, piggyBac transposon-based system, we developed a method to systematically decipher the host genes that may be associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. A Marc145 cell library, which was randomly mutated by transfecting piggyBac plasmids, was challenged with PRRSV. The surviving cell clones were subjected to inverse PCR and high-throughput sequencing to map the integration sites of the transposon. Detailed annotation of the ...

Domains of the TF protein important in regulating its own palmitoylation.

Sindbis virus particles contain the viral proteins capsid, E1 and E2, and low levels of a small membrane protein called TF. TF is produced during a (-1) programmed ribosomal frameshifting event during the translation of the structural polyprotein. TF from Sindbis virus-infected cells is present in two palmitoylated states, basal and maximal; unpalmitoylated TF is not detectable. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that without palmitoylation, TF is not incorporated into released virions, suggesting palmitoylat...

Rapid establishment of stable retroviral packaging cells and recombinant susceptible target cell lines employing novel transposon vectors derived from Sleeping Beauty.

Viral vector particles derived from murine leukemia virus (MLV) mediate highly efficient stable gene transfer used in gene therapeutic approaches and in the generation of transgenic cell lines. However, the establishment of stable viral packaging cells (VPCs) is a time-consuming challenge. To overcome this limitation, we successfully generated novel Sleeping Beauty-derived transposon vectors entailing envelope and packaging expression cassettes as well as a transfer vector. Upon multiplexed transposition in...

N-Linked glycosylation of the membrane protein ectodomain regulates infectious bronchitis virus-induced ER stress response, apoptosis and pathogenesis.

Coronavirus membrane (M) protein is the most abundant structural protein playing a critical role in virion assembly. Previous studies show that the N-terminal ectodomain of M protein is modified by glycosylation, but its precise functions are yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this study, we confirm that N-linked glycosylation occurs at two predicted sites in the M protein ectodomain of infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV). Dual mutations at the two sites (N3D/N6D) did not affect particle assembly, vi...

Macropinocytosis contributes to hantavirus entry into human airway epithelial cells.

Hantaviruses are emerging rodent-borne negative-strand RNA viruses associated with severe human diseases. Zoonotic transmission occurs via aerosols of contaminated rodent excreta and cells of the human respiratory epithelium represent likely early targets. Here we investigated cellular factors involved in entry of the pathogenic Old and New World hantaviruses Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) into human respiratory epithelial cells. Screening of a kinase inhibitor library using a biocontained reco...

Mosquito cells persistently infected with dengue virus produce viral particles with host-dependent replication.

Dengue viruses (DENV) are important arboviruses that can establish a persistent infection in its mosquito vector Aedes. Mosquitoes have a short lifetime in nature which makes trying to study the processes that take place during persistent viral infections in vivo. Therefore, C6/36 cells have been used to study this type of infection. C6/36 cells persistently infected with DENV 2 produce virions that cannot infect BHK -21 cells. We hypothesized that the following passages in mosquito cells have a deleterious...

Viral replication centers and the DNA damage response in JC virus-infected cells.

JCV is a human polyomavirus (PyV) that establishes a persistent infection in its host. Current immunomodulatory therapies, such as Natalizumab for multiple sclerosis, can result in JCV reactivation, leading to the debilitating brain disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV is among the viruses that recruit and modulate the host DNA damage response (DDR) to replicate its genome. We have identified host proteins recruited to the nuclear sites of JC viral DNA (vDNA) replication using three...

Genomic characteristics and pathogenicity of natural recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 harboring genes of a Korean field strain and VR-2332-like strain.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an economically-important disease caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), has become endemic to most pig-producing countries. Point mutation and recombination are responsible for genetic heterogeneity, resulting in circulation of genetically-diverse strains. However, no natural recombinant PRRSV has yet been identified in Korea. Here, we successfully isolated natural recombinant PRRSV-2 (KU-N1202) using cell culture, investigated its genomic characteristics, and f...

Elevated serum activity of MBL and ficolin-2 as biomarkers for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic HCV infection.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an uncommon but significant outcome of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A serum biomarker for predicting progression to HCC would have a major impact on patient monitoring and clinical management. We explored circulating liver-expressed lectins, ficolin-2, ficolin-3 and mannose binding lectin (MBL), as potential biomarkers for the development of HCC. The activity of these three lectins were analysed in HCV positive patients who developed HCC (n = 31) with comp...

Modulation of TCR-dependent NFAT signaling is impaired in HIV-1 Nef isolates from elite controllers.

HIV-1 Nef modulates the activation state of CD4 T cells by altering signaling events elicited by the T cell receptor (TCR). Primary nef sequences exhibit extensive inter-individual diversity that influences their ability to downregulate CD4 and HLA class I; however, the impact of nef variation on modulation of T cell signaling is poorly characterized. Here, we measured TCR-mediated activation of NFAT transcription factor in the presence of nef alleles isolated from 45 elite controllers (EC) and 46 chronic p...

Influenza A virus (H1N1) triggers a hypoxic response by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via inhibition of proteasome.

Virus reprogramming of host cellular function is a critical strategy for viral survival and replication. A better understanding of virus-host interaction may provide new potential avenues for the treatment of viral diseases. It has been reported that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway is activated by a range of pathogens via different mechanisms, but the impact of Influenza A virus on HIF-1 signaling is still unclear. In this study, we observed H1N1 infection stabilized HIF-1α under normoxic condit...

Adaptive genetic diversifications among tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes: A genome-wide perspective.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological illness in humans. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the causative agent, can be grouped into Far Eastern, Siberian, and (Western) European subtypes. These subtypes are characterized by diverse vector specificity, host range and clinical manifestations. To provide hints for the decisive genetic factors underlying their epidemic and pathogenic diversities, we performed a genome-wide evolutionary study to evaluate the genetic diversity accompanied wit...

Wild birds do not harbor higher diversity of influenza virus internal genes than poultry.

Avian influenza A virus (AIV) has threatened global economy and public health. Wild birds have long been thought to serve as the natural reservoir of influenza virus, and thus it is expected that wild birds harbor higher viral diversity than poultry. Yet, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Here, we assemble a data set of AIV from 75 regions worldwide over 11 years and compare the genetic diversity of wild bird AIV with that of poultry AIV. We find the genetic diversity of the internal genes of AI...

Discovery of endogenous retroviruses with mammalian envelopes in avian genomes uncovers long-term bird-mammal interaction.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) arise from the infection and integration of past retroviruses into animal hosts. We performed large-scale genomic mining of 101 avian genomes for discovery of ERVs having none-avian origin and investigated the cross-species transmission events. Phylogenetic analysis of the reverse transcriptase (RT) of polymerase gene (pol) and the transmembrane subunit (TM) of the envelope gene (env) supported that avian ERVs with a mammalian env gene existed in at least 15 avian species and ...

Mutations present in a low-passage Zika virus isolate result in attenuated pathogenesis in mice.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in neurological disorders including Congenital Zika Syndrome in infants exposed to the virus in utero. Pregnant women can be infected by mosquito bite as well as by sexual transmission from infected men. Herein, the variants of ZIKV within the male reproductive tract and ejaculates were assessed in inoculated mice. We identified two non-synonymous variants at positions E-V330L and NS1-W98G. These variants were also present in the passage three PRVABC59 isolate and infe...

Ambient conditions of elevated temperature and CO levels are detrimental to the probabilities of transmission by insects of a Potato virus Y isolate and to its simulated prevalence in the environment.

Conditions of elevated temperature and CO levels [30 °C and 970 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively] reduced the systemic titers of a potato virus Y (PVY) isolate in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, relative to standard conditions (25 °C, ~405 ppm CO). Under controlled conditions we studied how these growing environments affected the transmission of infection by aphids. Probabilities of transmission of infection by insects that fed on infected donor plants kept at either standard conditions, or at 30...


Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement