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PubMed Journal Database | Water research RSS

09:05 EDT 27th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,000+ from Water research

Selenate removal by Fe coupled with ferrous iron, hydrogen peroxide, sulfidation, and weak magnetic field: A comparative study.

Dosing ferrous ions (ZVI/Fe), combining with oxidants (e.g., HO) (ZVI/HO), sulfidation treatment (S-ZVI), and introducing a weak magnetic field (ZVI/WMF) have been widely used to enhance the performance of zerovalent iron (ZVI) for reductive removal of contaminants. Taking Se(VI) as a probe contaminant, this study systematically compared the performances of different ZVI systems (i.e., ZVI/Fe, ZVI/HO, S-ZVI, and ZVI/WMF) for contaminant removal. All the four tested methods could greatly improve the performa...

Fouling behavior of isolated dissolved organic fractions from seawater in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process.

Organic fouling is still elusive in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process. Classifying organics in seawater will provide an in-depth understanding of the important fraction on RO fouling. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater was fractionated and concentrated by membrane technique into three major fractions (i.e., biopolymer fraction, humic substance with building block fraction, and low molecular weight fraction) by their molecular weight (MW) according to the definitions...

Effect of microbial activity and microbial community structure on the formation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and bioavailable DON driven by low temperatures.

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) formed by microbial metabolism in wastewater treatment processes adversely impacts wastewater reuse and receiving waters quality, and microbial metabolism is greatly influenced by temperatures. However, little is known about the effect of microorganisms on DON and bioavailable DON (ABDON) formation under low temperatures. In this study, six reactors were operated at low (8 °C and 15 °C) and room (25 °C) temperatures to evaluate the relationship between microbial act...

An examination of the microbial community and occurrence of potential human pathogens in rainwater harvested from different roofing materials.

While harvested rainwater can serve as an alternative water supply, microbial contaminants within the collection system can negatively affect water quality. Here, we investigated the impact of roofing material on the microbial quality of rainwater freshly harvested from pilot-scale roofs (concrete tile, cool, green, Galvalume metal, and asphalt fiberglass shingle). The microbial quality of freshly harvested rainwater from six rain events over two years was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and culture-...

Effects of compositions, chemical structures, and microporosity of sedimentary organic matter on degradation of benzo(a)pyrene by hydrogen peroxide.

We investigated how the degradation of 7-C-BaP aged in sediments by HO treatment was influenced by the chemical structures, compositions, and microporosity of sedimentary organic carbon (SOC). Unstable OC (USOC), stable OC (STOC), mineral-protected OC (MOC), and chemically resistant OC (ROC) fractions were fractionated. The chemical structures and microporosity of the ROC fractions were characterized by C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and CO adsorption technique, respectively. A first-order, ...

The treatability of trace organic pollutants in WWTP effluent and associated biotoxicity reduction by advanced treatment processes for effluent quality improvement.

As increasing attention is paid to surface water protection, there has been demand for improvements of domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. This has led to the application of many different advanced treatment processes (ATPs). In this study, the treatability of trace organic pollutants in secondary effluent (SE) and associated biotoxicity reduction by four types of ATPs, including coagulation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and photocatalysis, and ozo...

Removal of E. coli and Salmonella in pot ceramic filters operating at different filtration rates.

The use of pot ceramic filters PCF to improve the domestic water quality supply has been recognized as an alternative in regions where there is unsecure water treatment or contamination of the treated water during transport and storage and an absence of safe drinking water. The aim of this study was to evaluate a model of PCF impregnated with colloidal silver under three filtration rates (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 L/h) and three E. coli and Salmonella spp concentrations (10, 10 and 10 CFU/mL). The evaluation was ...

Decomposition of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) during chlorination and consequent disinfection byproducts formation.

β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) are two newly identified algal toxins, and they may react with chlorine to undergo decomposition and generate disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during pre-chlorination as well as chlorine disinfection. In this study, the decomposition of BMAA and DAB during chlorination and the consequent DBPs formation were investigated. The BMAA and DAB concentrations in source waters were determined, the decomposition kinetics of BMAA and DAB and the format...

Continuous ozonation of urban wastewater: Removal of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance genes and phytotoxicity.

This work evaluated the removal of a mixture of eight antibiotics (i.e. ampicillin (AMP), azithromycin (AZM), erythromycin (ERY), clarithromycin (CLA), ofloxacin (OFL), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP) and tetracycline (TC)) from urban wastewater, by ozonation operated in continuous mode at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (i.e. 10, 20, 40 and 60 min) and specific ozone doses (i.e. 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 gO gDOC). As expected, the efficiency of ozonation was highly ozone dose- and ...

Chlorite formation during ClO oxidation of model compounds having various functional groups and humic substances.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO) has been used as an alternative to chlorine in water purification to reduce the formation of halogenated by-products and give superior inactivation of microorganisms. However, the formation of chlorite (ClO) is a major consideration in the application of ClO. In order to improve understanding in ClO formation kinetics and mechanisms, this study investigated the reactions of ClO with 30 model compounds, 10 humic substances and 2 surface waters. ClO yields were found to be dependent on ...

Combining solar irradiation with chlorination enhances the photochemical decomposition of microcystin-LR.

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) generated by cyanobacteria is a potent toxin threatening human health. In this study the kinetics and mechanisms of MC-LR elimination from drinking water under solar irradiation with free chlorine (the solar/chlorine process) was evaluated. The rate of MC-LR degradation was dramatically enhanced in the solar/chlorine process (1.1 × 10 s) compared with chlorination alone (2.6 × 10 s) or solar irradiation alone (1.2 × 10 s) with a free chlorine dose of 42 μM (3.0 mg...

Removal efficiency of phosphorus, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins by the "flock & sink" mitigation technique in semi-arid eutrophic waters.

Geoengineering techniques have been used to control phosphorus and cyanobacteria in lakes promising greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. Techniques that use coagulants and clays to remove particulates and dissolved phosphorus from the water column have received great. In this study, bench-scale "flock & sink" assays were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulants aluminium sulphate (SUL), polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (CHI), alone and combined with natural bentonit...

Efficient phosphorus removal from MBR effluent with heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs).

Biological processes and chemical precipitation in combination with polishing by granular media or membrane filtration can remove 90-95% of the phosphorus (P) from wastewater. However, reducing the concentration to levels near those in high-quality receiving waters requires additional advanced treatment, typically including adsorption onto specialty media. These processes are often costly, they can be hard to control when the P loading varies, and their effectiveness can be compromised by the presence of co...

Organic matter removal and membrane fouling mitigation during algae-rich surface water treatment by powdered activated carbon adsorption pretreatment: Enhanced by UV and UV/chlorine oxidation.

In this work, UV and UV/chlorine (UV/Cl) were employed to enhance powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption pretreatment prior to ultrafiltration process for algae-contaminated surface water treatment. Their performance on membrane fouling mitigation and organic pollutant rejection was systematically evaluated. A comparative experiment was conducted under varying pollution degrees of algal extracellular organic matter (EOM) contamination in surface river water. The results indicated that UV/PAC and UV/Cl/P...

Anode potentials regulate Geobacter biofilms: New insights from the composition and spatial structure of extracellular polymeric substances.

The extracellular electron transfer (EET) efficiency in bioelectrochemical systems has been proven to be dependent on anode potentials. To explore the underlying mechanism, previous studies have mainly focused on EET conduit and bacterial biomass but rarely concerned with the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) surrounding electroactive cells. In this study, the response of Geobacter biofilms to anode potentials was investigated with a special emphasis on the mechanistic role of EPS. The electr...

Dose-dependent effects of acetate on the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in moving bed biofilm reactors.

Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) are promising as a post-treatment for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater. However, the effect of easily degradable carbon sources on the degradation of pharmaceuticals is unclear. This study shows the influence of acetate on the degradation of 26 pharmaceuticals in an MBBR was dose- and compound-dependent: while the degradation of venlafaxine, tramadol and ciprofloxacin was promoted (increase of reaction rate constant (k) by 133%, 212%, 55%) by acetate, its presence ...

Lithium ion-selective membrane with 2D subnanometer channels.

In the last two years, the rapidly rising demand for lithium has exceeded supply, resulting in a sharp increase in the price of the metal. Conventional electric driven membrane processes can separate Li from divalent cations, but there is virtually no commercial membrane that can efficiently and selectively extract Li from a solution containing chemically similar ions such as Na and K. Here, we show that the different movement behavior of Li ion within the sub-nanometre channel leads to Li ion-selectivity a...

Molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter transformed by O and O/HO treatments and the effects on formation of unknown disinfection by-products.

We investigated semiquantitative changes in almost 1000 dissolved organic matter (DOM) features during oxidation with 1 mg of O per liter (mg O/L), 4 mg O/L, or 4 mg O/L + 2.5 mg of HO per liter (advanced oxidation process, AOP) by unknown screening analysis with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The consequential effects on formation of unknown disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorination were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments. Several hundred unsaturated DOM features with positive oxygen-sub...

NanoSIMS reveals unusual enrichment of acetate and propionate by an anammox consortium dominated by Jettenia asiatica.

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite into N in a chemolithoautotrophic way, meaning that they utilize CO/HCO solely as their carbon sources. Such autotrophic behavior limits their competitiveness with heterotrophic microorganisms in both natural environments and engineered systems. Recently, environmental metagenomic results have indicated the capability of anammox bacteria to metabolize short-chain fatty acids, further confirmed by limited experimental evidence based...

Sulfidation mitigates the passivation of zero valent iron at alkaline pHs: Experimental evidences and mechanism.

Groundwater pH is one of the most important geochemical parameters in controlling the interfacial reactions of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with water and contaminants. Ball milled, microscale ZVI (mZVI) efficiently dechlorinated TCE at initial stage ( 9, mZVI almost completely lost its reactivity. In contrast, ball milled, sulfidated microscale ZVI (S-mZVI) didn't experience any reactivity loss during the whole reaction stage across pH 6-10 and could efficiently dechlorinate TCE at pH 10 with a reaction rate o...

A comparison between sulfuric acid and oxalic acid leaching with subsequent purification and precipitation for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash.

Wet chemical approach is widely applied for P extraction from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) due to the relatively simple process and low lost. In this study, HSO and HCO were compared to recover P from ISSA through three steps of acid leaching, cation exchange resin (CER) purification and precipitation. Transformations of P speciation and mineral phases in ISSA from 600 to 900 °C were studied. The results showed that the ISSA samples were mainly composed of inorganic P (IP), and part of non-apatit...

New insight into the formation of polyhalogenated carbazoles: Aqueous chlorination of residual carbazole under bromide condition in drinking water.

Although polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) have been increasingly detected in aquatic environments, studies on their source and formation are extremely scarce. After investigation of PHCZs and carbazole in drinking water, an overlooked formation route of chloro/bromo-CZs was now proposed as aqueous chlorination of residual carbazole under bromide condition. Four groups of PHCZ, including mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-halogenated groups, were identified in chlorinated drinking water, and the mechanism of the ...

Kinetic assessment of antibiotic resistant bacteria inactivation by solar photo-Fenton in batch and continuous flow mode for wastewater reuse.

The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment plants represents a real risk to human health. For the first time, this paper shows that the inactivation rate of cefotaxime resistant bacteria is the same as total bacteria when secondary effluents are treated by the solar photo-Fenton process. To obtain this result, an exhaustive and comparative kinetic study on the inactivation of both total and cefotaxime resistant bacteria (Total coliform, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus ...

Variably improved microbial source tracking with digital droplet PCR.

This study addressed whether digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) could improve sensitivity and specificity of human-associated Bacteroidales genetic markers, BacHum and B. theta, and their quantification in environmental and fecal composite samples. Human markers were quantified by qPCR and ddPCR platforms obtained from the same manufacturer. A total of 180 samples were evaluated by each platform including human and animal feces, sewage, and environmental water. The sensitivity of ddPCR and qPCR marker assays in se...

A one-year long survey of temporal disinfection byproducts variations in a consumer's tap and their removals by a point-of-use facility.

In order to better understand the occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in tap water and their real impacts on consumers, this study made a one-year long survey of the temporal variations of a series of DBPs before and after a point-of-use (POU) treatment facility installed in a building serving for ∼300 people. Water samples were collected every week at a fixed location and time for 1 year, and frequent samplings were carried out every 6 h a day for 1 month at selected seasons, which ultimat...


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