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PubMed Journal Database | Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research RSS

03:32 EST 24th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 711 from Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research

Sewage sludge-derived carbon-doped manganese as efficient cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells.

Searching for efficient and inexpensive catalysts to replace precious metal-based catalyst in air-cathode microbial fuel cells is crucial for the practical application and commercialization in wastewater treatment and energy generation. Here, through a simple pyrolysis process, sewage sludge could be converted into carbon material with hierarchically porous structure, which demonstrates oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic performance. Subsequently, co-doping Mn and N species on the carbonized sewage s...

Production of activated carbon from poultry feathers for waste water treatment.

Contamination of water bodies by heavy metal ions is a challenge many developing nations like Zimbabwe face, with negative environmental and socio-economic repercussions. Treating affected bodies usually requires a costly consignment of chemicals and activated carbon. This research investigates the possible use of an abundant waste resource - poultry feathers - to make activated carbon for heavy metal ion removal. Poultry consumption in this nation generates more than five million tonnes of feathers a year,...

Degradation of high-concentration simulated organic wastewater by DBD plasma.

In this study, a high-concentration simulated organic wastewater, made by dissolving methyl violet in water, was degraded using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated in air and O respectively. The decoloration rate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater were evaluated during plasma treatments with the initial concentration of methyl violet of 300 mg L. Results showed that the highest decoloration rate of around 100% within 10 min and the highest COD decrease of 33% within 60 min could ...

Assessing energy performance and critical issues of a large wastewater treatment plant through full-scale data benchmarking.

The wastewater sector accounts for 25% of the global energy demand in the water sector. Since this consumption is expected to increase in the forthcoming years, energy optimization strategies are needed. A truly effective planning of energy improvement measures requires a detailed knowledge of a system, which can only be achieved through energy audit and real-time monitoring. In order to improve the identification of critical issues related to the use of energy resources within a wastewater treatment plant ...

Synthesis and characterization of a new magnetic adsorbent for removal of 4-nitrophenol: application of response surface methodology.

Magnetic modified graphene oxide was synthesized as a new modified magnetic nano-composite (MMNC) by a simple sonochemical-hydrothermal method. The sonochemical reaction was employed to exfoliate, functionalize and decorate neomycin on graphene oxide sheets. Nickel ferromagnetic particles were synthesized by hydrothermal co-precipitation method and decorated on neomycin-modified graphene oxide. The morphology and chemical structure of MMNC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersiv...

Performance of a French system of vertical flow wetlands (first stage) operating with an extended feeding cycle.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the treatment performance in the first stage of a vertical flow constructed wetland - French system (VCW-FS) over an extended feeding period (seven days), in two parallel units, for a population equivalent (p.e.) around 100 inhabitants (total of 0.6 m²·p.e.), under Brazilian tropical climatic conditions. One of the units had a greater surface sludge deposit layer, accumulated over nine years of operation, while the other unit had its sludge removed prior to the experim...

Numerical and experimental studies of water disinfection in UV reactors.

Performance of UV reactors for water disinfection is investigated in this paper. Both experimental and numerical studies are performed on base reactor LP24. Enterobacteria phage MS2 is chosen as the challenge microorganism in the experiments. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the effect of different parameters, i.e. flow rate and UV transmission, on the reactor performance. Simulation is carried out based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT with user defined functions (UDFs) implemented. The UDF is ...

Kinetics of sonophotocatalytic degradation of an anionic dye nigrosine with doped and undoped zinc oxide.

The current research focuses on the photocatalytic, sonocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of nigrosine dye with nitrogen-doped and undoped zinc oxide powders. The sonophotocatalytic degradation of dye was found to occur at a higher rate than during photo- or sonocatalytic processes. Nitrogen-doped and undoped zinc oxide powders were synthesized by a wet chemical method. Further, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infra...

Hydraulic investigation of the impact of retrofitting floating treatment wetlands in retention ponds.

This paper describes the laboratory experimental investigations undertaken to analyse the influence of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) on the hydraulic performance of a stormwater retention pond. Two experimental series were conducted, each focussed on investigating the influence of placing an FTW in a pond with firstly the inflow entering the retention pond from an inlet positioned 0.25 m offset from the longitudinal axis of the pond, and secondly the inlet positioned at the longitudinal axis of the pon...

Biological treatment removal of rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) and metals from actual acid mine drainage.

Actual acid mine drainage (AMD) containing a high concentration of sulfate (∼1,000 mg·L), dissolved metals, uranium, rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) was treated using a down-flow fixed-structured bed biological reactor (DFSBR). The reactor was operated in a continuous flow mode for 175 days and the temperature was maintained at 30 °C. The synthetic AMD was gradually replaced by the actual AMD in 20, 50 and 75% of the total medium volume. Sugarcane vinasse was used as the electron donor and the inf...

Carbon capture for blackwater: chemical enhanced high-rate activated sludge process.

Blackwater has more benefits for carbon recovery than conventional domestic wastewater. Carbon capture and up-concentration are crucial prerequisites for carbon recovery from blackwater, the same as domestic wastewater. Both chemical enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) processes have enormous potential to capture organics. However, single CEPT is subject to the disruption of influent sulfide, and single HRAS has insufficient flocculation capacity. As a result, their carbo...

Black water treatment by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor: a pilot study.

Decentralized sanitary wastewater treatment has become a viable and sustainable alternative, especially for developing countries and small communities. Besides, effluents may present variations in chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen values. This study describes the feasibility of using a pilot upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to treat wastewater with different organic loads (COD), using black water (BW) and sanitary wastewater, in addition to its po...

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas sp. HJ3 inoculated for enhancing phenol and nitrogen removal in coal gasification wastewater.

A simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) bioaugmention system with Pseudomonas sp. HJ3 inoculated was established to explore the potential of simultaneous phenol and nitrogen removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). When the concentration of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols (TPh) was 1,765.94 ± 27.43 mg/L and 289.55 ± 10.32 mg/L, the average removal efficiency of COD and TPh at the stable operating stage reached 64.07% ± 0.76% and 74.91% ± 0.33%, respectively. ...

Development and adoption of wastewater treatment system for peri-urban agriculture in Multan, Pakistan.

The present research was conducted to assess the feasibility of biological treatment of a typical wastewater (WW) stream in Multan, Pakistan, using daily trends of WW characteristics and to design a wastewater treatment (WWT) system for that stream. The pH (5.8-6.2), temperature (24-30 °C), biological oxygen demand (BOD: 128-265 mg/L), ultimate BOD (BOD: 227-438 mg/L), BOD/total Kjeldahl nitrogen (BOD/TKN:5.9-11.2), BOD/BOD (1.6-2.0), carbonaceous BOD/nitrogenous BOD (CBOD/NBOD:1.6-2.8) of the WW was found...

Hydraulic characteristics of stepped spillway dropshafts for urban deep tunnel drainage systems: the case study of Chengdu city.

Cities in southwestern China experience urban drainage and overflow pollution after extreme rainfall events, which are major problems. In this study, a type of stepped spillway dropshaft suitable for drainage by deep tunnels in Chengdu was proposed and the hydraulic characteristics were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the nappe flow and strong turbulent deflected jet flow in the stepped spillway allowed the dropshaft to greatly dissipate energy. According to the distribution of the time...

Chelating modified cellulose bearing pendant heterocyclic moiety for effective removal of heavy metals.

Cellulose bearing pendant Schiff base with heterocyclic chelating groups (CMC-Bz) was synthesized, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as solid state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (C-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectra. The adsorption of toxic metals onto cellulosic material was tested in a batch mode operation. The adsorption functional factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, ...

Application of polymeric ferric sulfate combined with cross-frequency magnetic field in the printing and dyeing wastewater treatment.

Polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) was pretreated with a self-made alternating frequency magnetic field for coagulation printing and dyeing (PD) wastewater treatment. The effects of PFS dosage, magnetization intensity, frequency, and time on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity of PD wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that the magnetized PFS significantly improved the removal efficiency in wastewater treatment. When the initial COD, color and turbidity of printing an...

The removal of Rhodamine B by HO or ClO combined with hydrodynamic cavitation.

Rhodamine B (RhB), widely used as an industrial dye, is a toxic organic that is hazardous to human health and can cause water pollution. In this study, the removal rate of RhB was investigated by the following methods: hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) operated individually, and HC combined with oxidants HO or ClO. The effect of different operating parameters including pressure (2-6 bar) and initial pH (2-8) on the extent of degradation was investigated using an orifice plate as the cavitation device to achieve ...

Survival of emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii in water environment exposed to different oxygen conditions.

Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of hospital infections. Over the last decade, its occurrence in natural environments outside hospital settings has been reported. The aim was to examine the survival of A. baumannii in water media exposed to different ranges of oxygen supply in order to predict its behaviour in the environment. The abundance of five A. baumannii isolates was monitored in nutrient-depleted and nutrient-rich water media in aerated, intermediate and anaerobic conditions (oxy...

Simulating the effects of low impact development approaches on urban flooding: a case study from Tehran, Iran.

Low impact development (LID) methods have been shown to be efficient in reducing the peak flow and total volume of urban stormwater, which is a top priority for effective urban stormwater management in many municipalities. However, decision-makers need information on the effects of LIDs and their associated costs before allocating limited resources. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to investigate the effects of five different LID scenarios on urban flooding in a district in Te...

Viability determination of Ascaris ova in raw wastewater: a comparative evaluation of culture-based, BacLight Live/Dead staining and PMA-qPCR methods.

Accurate evaluation of viable Ascaris ova in wastewater is the key to mitigating Ascaris reinfections in endemic regions. In this study, the viability of Ascaris ova in raw wastewater was determined using three different detection methods: culture-based, BacLight Live/Dead staining and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR). Furthermore, comparative assessment of viability utilising the aforementioned detection methods was performed using seeded experiments in wastewater. The ...

Study of the adsorption and photocatalytic properties of copper oxide with different morphologies in removal of Cr(III) ion from aqueous media.

Chromium Cr(III) is considered as a toxic pollutant in industrial wastewater. Photocatalytic processes can be used as an efficient method for the treatment of heavy metal wastewaters. This study was conducted to synthesize copper (II) oxide (CuO) with dendrite, leaf and feather morphologies. Synthesized CuO with dendrite and leaf morphologies were characterized by XRD, SEM, and BET/BJH and CuO with feather morphology by XRD, SEM, BET/BJH, FTIR, TEM and DRS techniques. Parameters such as morphology CuO, the ...

Electrochemical oxidation treatment of coal tar wastewater with lead dioxide anodes.

In this study, coal tar wastewater was treated by electrochemical oxidation technology using lead dioxide anodes. The influence of operating parameters, including applied current density, electrode gap and initial pH value, on the removal ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was investigated. The results demonstrated that the COD removal ratio reached 90.5% after 3.5 h electrolysis with the current density at 3 A dm and electrode gap at 1.0 cm. Correspondingly, the COD decreased from 5,125 mg L to 487 mg L...

Phosphorus recovery from sewage with a sustainable and low-cost treatment system.

This study proposes a technology conceived based on an integrative approach that aims to promote phosphorus recovery and to recycle ferric water treatment sludge (FWTS), using it as a phosphorus adsorbent which may be applied as a soil ameliorant after reaching saturation. The assessed pilot plant operated with a daily influent flow of 360 litres and presented a removal efficiency of 94.4% ± 3.2% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and of 91.2% ± 7.8% for suspended solids. It also presented promising results...

Method for evaluating the heat-island mitigation effect of porous/water-retentive blocks using a climatic chamber.

This paper presents a method and mock-up design for evaluating the heat-island mitigation effect of porous/water-retentive blocks in a climatic environmental chamber using ambient temperature measurements. To create the proposed method, the heat circulation mechanism of blocks was considered. From this, we specified the climatic chamber design requirements, determined the required components and equipment for the mock-up, and developed the proposed method for evaluating heat-island mitigation performance ba...


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