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18:13 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "22nd Century Reports Responses Nicotine Reduction Plan" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Nicotine Reduction Strategy: State of the science and challenges to tobacco control policy and FDA tobacco product regulation.

Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotin...

Young adult dual combusted cigarette and e-cigarette users' anticipated responses to a nicotine reduction policy and menthol ban in combusted cigarettes.

The aim of the study was to assess young adult dual e-cigarette (EC) and combusted cigarette (CC) users' anticipated responses to a hypothetical very low nicotine content product standard and menthol ban in CC.

Early-adolescent male C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice display reduced sensitivity to acute nicotine administration.

The initial response to nicotine is an important predictor of subsequent use. Multiple factors may alter this response including genetics and age of first use. Here we investigated the influence of age, genetics, and their interaction on nicotine sensitivity. We then examined whether these factors influence the relationship between initial behavioral responses and voluntary nicotine consumption in adulthood.

Health Information Blocking: Responses Under the 21st Century Cures Act.

Adolescent smokers' response to reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes: Acute effects on withdrawal symptoms and subjective evaluations.

Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents.

Continuous nicotine exposure does not affect resurgence of alcohol seeking in rats.

Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in the United States and alcohol abuse can lead to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder is a persistent condition and relapse rates following successful remission are high. Many factors have been associated with relapse for alcohol use disorder, but identification of these factors has not been well translated into preventative utility. One potentially important factor, concurrent nicotine use, has not been well investigated as a causal factor in relapse for alcoh...

Nicotine and sleep deprivation: impact on pain sensitivity and immune modulation in rats.

Repeated nicotine administration has been associated with increased paradoxical sleep in rats and antinociceptive properties, whereas paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) elicits pronociceptive and inflammatory responses. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated nicotine administration and its withdrawal combined with PSD on pain sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to repeated injections of saline (SAL) or nicotine (NIC) for 12 days or 7 days of nicotine...

Anticipating Industry Arguments: The US Food and Drug Administration's Authority to Reduce Nicotine Levels in Cigarettes.

The US Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is considering lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes to "minimally addictive or nonaddictive levels." This could be a transformative public health measure, but the tobacco industry is likely to challenge such an action in court. This article reviews some of the key legal arguments that industry is likely to advance and considers possible responses. As we demonstrate, there are strong arguments that the US Food and Drug Administration has the authori...

Biochemical, demographic, and self-reported tobacco-related predictors of the acute heart rate response to nicotine in smokers.

Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European ...

Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The optimal temporal approach for reducing nicotine to minimally or nonaddictive levels in all cigarettes sold in the United States has not been determined.

Nicotine increases fear responses and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in a context-dependent manner in zebrafish.

Nicotine is an alkaloid with positive effects on learning and memory processes. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) elicits fear responses in zebrafish, but the effects of nicotine on aversive behaviors and associative learning in this species remain unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotine enhances contextual fear responses in zebrafish and investigated a putative involvement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in associative learning. Fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nicotine for 3 min and t...

Nicotine modulates the facial stimulation-evoked responses in cerebellar granule cell layer in vivo in mice.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are cationic channels that mediate fast excitatory transmission in the central nervous system. Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits have been detected within cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL), and activation of these receptors may have a significant influence on neuronal synaptic transmission of the cerebellum. The aim of present study was to better understand the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors during the sensory stimulation-evoked synaptic transm...

Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2 Differentially Regulates Nicotine-Induced Anxiolytic- and Antidepressant-Like Effects in Mice.

This study assessed the role of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) in nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects using RGS2 wildtype (WT) and RGS2 knockout (KO) mice. RGS2 negatively regulates monoaminergic neurotransmission, which is implicated in the pathology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that deletion of RGS2 would enhance nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which were assessed using the elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests, respect...

Pregnancy-Induced Increases in the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio: Examining Changes During Antepartum and Postpartum.

Pregnancy-induced increases in nicotine metabolism may contribute to difficulties in quitting smoking during pregnancy. However, the time-course of changes in nicotine metabolism during early and late pregnancy are unclear. The present study investigated how pregnancy alters the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a common biomarker of nicotine metabolism among non-pregnant smokers.

Nicotine-Induced Neuroprotection in Rotenone In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease: Evidences for the Involvement of the Labile Iron Pool Level as the Underlying Mechanism.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could be protective for PD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective capacity of nicotine in a rat PD model. Considering that iron metabolism has been implicated in PD pathophysiology and nicotine has been described to chelate this metal, we also studied ...

Tobacco harm reduction: Making sure no one gets left behind.

Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation.

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence.

Cigarette Consumption and Biomarkers of Nicotine Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum.

Smokers can regulate their nicotine intake by altering the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and their smoking intensity. The current study aimed to compare the utility of self-reported CPD, total nicotine equivalents (TNE), and urinary cotinine to estimate nicotine intake during pregnancy.

An Adaptive, Data-Driven Personalized Advisor for Increasing Physical Activity.

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of fitness trackers and smartphone applications for promoting physical activity. Most of these applications use accelerometers to measure the level of activity that users engage in and provide descriptive, interactive reports of a user's step counts. While these reports are data-driven and personalized, any recommendations, if provided, are limited to popular health advice. In our work, we develop an approach for providing data-driven and personali...

Rats choose high doses of nicotine in order to compensate for changes in its price and availability.

Restricting when and where smoking can occur is a major focus of public health policies in Western countries. In conjunction with increased taxation, these approaches have contributed to a reduction in smoking uptake among adolescents, yet the consequences for established smokers are less clear. In order to further explore this relationship, we developed a novel animal model of restricted nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to choose between three doses of nicotine (15, 30 and 60 μg/kg/infusion...

Nicotine aversion is mediated by GABAergic interpeduncular nucleus inputs to laterodorsal tegmentum.

Nicotine use can lead to dependence through complex processes that are regulated by both its rewarding and aversive effects. Recent studies show that aversive nicotine doses activate excitatory inputs to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) from the medial habenula (MHb), but the downstream targets of the IPN that mediate aversion are unknown. Here we show that IPN projections to the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDTg) are GABAergic using optogenetics in tissue slices from mouse brain. Selective stimulation of these...

Are we guilty of errors of omission on the potential role of electronic nicotine delivery systems as less harmful substitutes for combusted tobacco use?

Two of the more controversial tobacco control and regulatory strategies in recent years are the nicotine reduction and tobacco harm reduction (THR) strategies. They have become inextricably intertwined as a successful nicotine reduction policy might only be possible in an environment in which alternative, noncombusted forms of nicotine like electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are available to address the needs of those who were unable or unwilling to completely give up nicotine. Unfortunately, ENDS ...

Maternal nicotine exposure has severe cross-generational effects on offspring behavior.

Our previous studies showed that paternal nicotine exposure can lead to hyperactivity in the offspring. Nevertheless, the cross-generational effects of maternal and biparental nicotine exposure remain unclear. In this study, female and male mice were exposed respectively by nicotine before pregnancy. The maternal pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure led to depression-like behaviors in the F1 offspring. However, after biparental pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure, seventy percentage of the offspring exhibited a depr...

Comparison of nicotine exposure during pregnancy when smoking and abstinent with nicotine replacement therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with negative pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Some guidelines recommend nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation during pregnancy but adherence with NRT is generally poor and could be partially-explained by nicotine-related safety concerns. We compared pregnant women's cotinine and nicotine exposures from smoking with those when they were abstinent from smoking and using NRT.

The hygiene hypothesis: immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance.

The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential reduction in type 1 immune responses. It is now understood that the development of tolerance to allergens depends on microbial colonization and immunostimulatory environmental signals during early-life or passed on by the mother. These environmental cues a...

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