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22nd Century Reports Responses Nicotine Reduction Plan PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest 22nd Century Reports Responses Nicotine Reduction Plan articles that have been published worldwide.
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Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotin...
A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers.
Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two different approaches for reducing the harms of smoking have emerged, both of which focus on breaking the link between the addiction to nicotine and the harms cause...
Adolescent smoking is associated with pathological drinking later in life, but the biological basis for this vulnerability is unknown. To examine how adolescent nicotine exposure influences subsequent ethanol intake, nicotine was administered during adolescence or adulthood, and responses to alcohol were measured 1 month later. We found that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine exposure altered GABA signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and led to a long-lasting enhancement of alcohol self-admi...
Chronic nicotine administration impairs reflex chronotropic responses that follow arterial baroreceptor unloading in female rats with repleted, but not depleted (ovariectomized, OVX), estrogen (E). This study investigated whether products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or heme oxygenase (HO) and related soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling mediate the E-sensitive depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia.
Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents.
Confirming preclinical findings, nicotine in humans (via smoking) enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards. Recent demonstration of similar effects with nicotine via e-cigarettes suggests they may also occur when using nicotine replacement therapies (NRT).
Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in the United States and alcohol abuse can lead to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder is a persistent condition and relapse rates following successful remission are high. Many factors have been associated with relapse for alcohol use disorder, but identification of these factors has not been well translated into preventative utility. One potentially important factor, concurrent nicotine use, has not been well investigated as a causal factor in relapse for alcoh...
The US Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is considering lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes to "minimally addictive or nonaddictive levels." This could be a transformative public health measure, but the tobacco industry is likely to challenge such an action in court. This article reviews some of the key legal arguments that industry is likely to advance and considers possible responses. As we demonstrate, there are strong arguments that the US Food and Drug Administration has the authori...
Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European ...
Reducing cigarettes per day (CPD) aided by medication increases quit attempts (QA) among smokers not trying to quit. If this is due to reducing CPD per se, then a greater reduction should predict making a QA.
This study investigated the effects of nicotine/tobacco on neural activation during performance of a monetary incentivized delay task.
Nicotine is an alkaloid with positive effects on learning and memory processes. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) elicits fear responses in zebrafish, but the effects of nicotine on aversive behaviors and associative learning in this species remain unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotine enhances contextual fear responses in zebrafish and investigated a putative involvement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in associative learning. Fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nicotine for 3 min and t...
This study assessed the role of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) in nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects using RGS2 wildtype (WT) and RGS2 knockout (KO) mice. RGS2 negatively regulates monoaminergic neurotransmission, which is implicated in the pathology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that deletion of RGS2 would enhance nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which were assessed using the elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests, respect...
Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could be protective for PD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective capacity of nicotine in a rat PD model. Considering that iron metabolism has been implicated in PD pathophysiology and nicotine has been described to chelate this metal, we also studied ...
Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence.
Nicotine harms adolescent brain development and contributes to addiction. Some adolescents report using nicotine-free e-cigarettes, but the accuracy of their reporting is unclear. We explored adolescents' use of nicotine-free e-cigarettes and understanding of chemicals in e-cigarettes, including nicotine.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence.
Smokers can regulate their nicotine intake by altering the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and their smoking intensity. The current study aimed to compare the utility of self-reported CPD, total nicotine equivalents (TNE), and urinary cotinine to estimate nicotine intake during pregnancy.
Restricting when and where smoking can occur is a major focus of public health policies in Western countries. In conjunction with increased taxation, these approaches have contributed to a reduction in smoking uptake among adolescents, yet the consequences for established smokers are less clear. In order to further explore this relationship, we developed a novel animal model of restricted nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to choose between three doses of nicotine (15, 30 and 60 μg/kg/infusion...
Regulations requiring a reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes to minimally addictive levels could significantly reduce the public health impact of cigarette smoking. Clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing and methods have been developed to use nicotine biomarkers to estimate compliance with use of very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNCs). To date, these methods have not considered the potential contribution of nicotine absorption from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among resea...
Nicotine use can lead to dependence through complex processes that are regulated by both its rewarding and aversive effects. Recent studies show that aversive nicotine doses activate excitatory inputs to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) from the medial habenula (MHb), but the downstream targets of the IPN that mediate aversion are unknown. Here we show that IPN projections to the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDTg) are GABAergic using optogenetics in tissue slices from mouse brain. Selective stimulation of these...
Prolonged use of nicotine appears to enhance incentive salience, a motivational-cognitive process that transforms an otherwise neutral stimulus into a "wanted" stimulus. It has been suggested that nicotinic enhancement of incentive salience contributes to the potential of relapse in individuals with tobacco addiction. However, there are two main limitations of prior research that caution this claim: (a) the use of passive experimentally delivered nicotine and (b) the use of sign-tracking as an index of ince...
Our previous studies showed that paternal nicotine exposure can lead to hyperactivity in the offspring. Nevertheless, the cross-generational effects of maternal and biparental nicotine exposure remain unclear. In this study, female and male mice were exposed respectively by nicotine before pregnancy. The maternal pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure led to depression-like behaviors in the F1 offspring. However, after biparental pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure, seventy percentage of the offspring exhibited a depr...