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15:03 EDT 15th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "22nd Century Reports Responses Nicotine Reduction Plan" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Nicotine Reduction Strategy: State of the science and challenges to tobacco control policy and FDA tobacco product regulation.

Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotin...

Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers.

Whether to push or pull? Nicotine reduction and non-combusted alternatives - Two strategies for reducing smoking and improving public health.

Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two different approaches for reducing the harms of smoking have emerged, both of which focus on breaking the link between the addiction to nicotine and the harms cause...

Adolescent Nicotine Exposure Alters GABAReceptor Signaling in the Ventral Tegmental Area and Increases Adult Ethanol Self-Administration.

Adolescent smoking is associated with pathological drinking later in life, but the biological basis for this vulnerability is unknown. To examine how adolescent nicotine exposure influences subsequent ethanol intake, nicotine was administered during adolescence or adulthood, and responses to alcohol were measured 1 month later. We found that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine exposure altered GABA signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and led to a long-lasting enhancement of alcohol self-admi...

Hemin blunts the depressant effect of chronic nicotine on reflex tachycardia via activation of central NOS/PI3K pathway in female rats.

Chronic nicotine administration impairs reflex chronotropic responses that follow arterial baroreceptor unloading in female rats with repleted, but not depleted (ovariectomized, OVX), estrogen (E). This study investigated whether products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or heme oxygenase (HO) and related soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling mediate the E-sensitive depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia.

Early-adolescent male C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice display reduced sensitivity to acute nicotine administration.

The initial response to nicotine is an important predictor of subsequent use. Multiple factors may alter this response including genetics and age of first use. Here we investigated the influence of age, genetics, and their interaction on nicotine sensitivity. We then examined whether these factors influence the relationship between initial behavioral responses and voluntary nicotine consumption in adulthood.

Health Information Blocking: Responses Under the 21st Century Cures Act.

Adolescent smokers' response to reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes: Acute effects on withdrawal symptoms and subjective evaluations.

Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents.

Reinforcement Enhancing Effects of Nicotine via Patch and Nasal Spray.

Confirming preclinical findings, nicotine in humans (via smoking) enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards. Recent demonstration of similar effects with nicotine via e-cigarettes suggests they may also occur when using nicotine replacement therapies (NRT).

Continuous nicotine exposure does not affect resurgence of alcohol seeking in rats.

Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in the United States and alcohol abuse can lead to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder is a persistent condition and relapse rates following successful remission are high. Many factors have been associated with relapse for alcohol use disorder, but identification of these factors has not been well translated into preventative utility. One potentially important factor, concurrent nicotine use, has not been well investigated as a causal factor in relapse for alcoh...

Nicotine and sleep deprivation: impact on pain sensitivity and immune modulation in rats.

Repeated nicotine administration has been associated with increased paradoxical sleep in rats and antinociceptive properties, whereas paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) elicits pronociceptive and inflammatory responses. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated nicotine administration and its withdrawal combined with PSD on pain sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to repeated injections of saline (SAL) or nicotine (NIC) for 12 days or 7 days of nicotine...

Anticipating Industry Arguments: The US Food and Drug Administration's Authority to Reduce Nicotine Levels in Cigarettes.

The US Food and Drug Administration has announced that it is considering lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes to "minimally addictive or nonaddictive levels." This could be a transformative public health measure, but the tobacco industry is likely to challenge such an action in court. This article reviews some of the key legal arguments that industry is likely to advance and considers possible responses. As we demonstrate, there are strong arguments that the US Food and Drug Administration has the authori...

Biochemical, demographic, and self-reported tobacco-related predictors of the acute heart rate response to nicotine in smokers.

Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European ...

The Effects of Nicotine and Tobacco use on Brain Reward Function: Interaction with Nicotine Dependence Severity.

This study investigated the effects of nicotine/tobacco on neural activation during performance of a monetary incentivized delay task.

Reduction in Cigarettes Per Day Prospectively Predicts Making a Quit Attempt: A Fine-Grained Secondary Analysis of a Natural History Study.

Reducing cigarettes per day (CPD) aided by medication increases quit attempts (QA) among smokers not trying to quit. If this is due to reducing CPD per se, then a greater reduction should predict making a QA.

Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The optimal temporal approach for reducing nicotine to minimally or nonaddictive levels in all cigarettes sold in the United States has not been determined.

Nicotine increases fear responses and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in a context-dependent manner in zebrafish.

Nicotine is an alkaloid with positive effects on learning and memory processes. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) elicits fear responses in zebrafish, but the effects of nicotine on aversive behaviors and associative learning in this species remain unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotine enhances contextual fear responses in zebrafish and investigated a putative involvement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in associative learning. Fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nicotine for 3 min and t...

Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2 Differentially Regulates Nicotine-Induced Anxiolytic- and Antidepressant-Like Effects in Mice.

This study assessed the role of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) in nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects using RGS2 wildtype (WT) and RGS2 knockout (KO) mice. RGS2 negatively regulates monoaminergic neurotransmission, which is implicated in the pathology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that deletion of RGS2 would enhance nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which were assessed using the elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests, respect...

Are Electronic Cigarettes an Effective Aid to Smoking Cessation or Reduction Among Vulnerable Groups? A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence.

Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction.

Pregnancy-Induced Increases in the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio: Examining Changes During Antepartum and Postpartum.

Pregnancy-induced increases in nicotine metabolism may contribute to difficulties in quitting smoking during pregnancy. However, the time-course of changes in nicotine metabolism during early and late pregnancy are unclear. The present study investigated how pregnancy alters the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a common biomarker of nicotine metabolism among non-pregnant smokers.

Nicotine-Induced Neuroprotection in Rotenone In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease: Evidences for the Involvement of the Labile Iron Pool Level as the Underlying Mechanism.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could be protective for PD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective capacity of nicotine in a rat PD model. Considering that iron metabolism has been implicated in PD pathophysiology and nicotine has been described to chelate this metal, we also studied ...

Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence.

Tobacco harm reduction: Making sure no one gets left behind.

Adolescents' understanding and use of nicotine in e-cigarettes.

Nicotine harms adolescent brain development and contributes to addiction. Some adolescents report using nicotine-free e-cigarettes, but the accuracy of their reporting is unclear. We explored adolescents' use of nicotine-free e-cigarettes and understanding of chemicals in e-cigarettes, including nicotine.

Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation.

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence.

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