PubMed Journals Articles About "A Study To Determine If A New Shigella Vaccine Is Safe, Induces Immunity And The Best Dose Among Kenyan Infants" RSS

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Showing "Study Determine Shigella Vaccine Safe Induces Immunity Best" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 69,000+

A phase I trial of WRSS1, a Shigella sonnei live oral vaccine in Bangladeshi adults and children.

Shigella sonnei live vaccine candidate, WRSS1, which was previously evaluated in US, Israeli and Thai volunteers, was administered orally to Bangladeshi adults and children to assess its safety, clinical tolerability and immunogenicity. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, age-descending study, 39 adults (18-39 years) and 64 children (5-9 years) were enrolled. Each adult cohort (n = 13) received one dose of 3x10, or three doses of 3 × 10 or 3 × 10 colony forming unit (CFU) of WRSS1...

Serum IgG antibodies to Shigella lipopolysaccharide antigens - a correlate of protection against shigellosis.

Shigella is a leading cause of diarrhea among children globally and of diarrheal deaths among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. To date, no licensed Shigella vaccine exists. We review evidence that serum IgG antibodies to Shigella LPS represent a good correlate of protection against shigellosis; this could support the process of development and evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Case-control and cohort studies conducted among Israeli soldiers serving under field cond...

Recombinant vector vaccine evolution.

Replicating recombinant vector vaccines consist of a fully competent viral vector backbone engineered to express an antigen from a foreign transgene. From the perspective of viral replication, the transgene is not only dispensable but may even be detrimental. Thus vaccine revertants that delete or inactivate the transgene may evolve to dominate the vaccine virus population both during the process of manufacture of the vaccine as well as during the course of host infection. A particular concern is that this ...

Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among Shigella spp. isolated from water sources.

Shigella spp. are known as a group of the most important water-borne pathogens worldwide. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Shigella species in a large collection of water samples and uncover molecular aspects of antimicrobial resistance in the recovered isolates.

Development of novel vaccines against human cytomegalovirus.

Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and HCMV infection of the immunosuppressed patients cause significant morbidity and mortality, and vaccine development against HCMV is a major public health priority. Efforts to develop HCMV vaccines have been ongoing for 50 y, though no HCMV vaccine has been licensed; encouraging and promising results have obtained from both preclinical and clinical trials. HCMV infection induces a wide range of humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses, and both branch...

Shigella-mediated immunosuppression in the human gut: subversion extends from innate to adaptive immune responses.

The enteropathogen, Shigella, is highly virulent and remarkably adjusted to the intestinal environment of its almost exclusive human host. Key for Shigella pathogenicity is the injection of virulence effectors into the host cell via its type three secretion system (T3SS), initiating disease onset and progression by the vast diversity of the secreted T3SS effectors and their respective cellular targets. The multifaceted modulation of host signaling pathways exerted by Shigella T3SS effectors, which include t...

In-silico design and production of a novel antigenic chimeric Shigella IpaB fused to C-terminal of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant phenotypes in Shigella serotypes and the high mortality rate, approximately one million dead annually, in affected patients announce a global demand for an effective serotype-independent vaccine against Shigella. This study aims to design, express, and purify a novel chimeric protein, as a serotype-independent vaccine candidate against Shigella containing full-length Shigella invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB) and a C-terminal fragment (residues 194-319) of Clostridium p...

A bivalent fusion vaccine composed of recombinant Apx proteins shows strong protection against Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serovar 1 and 2 in a mouse model.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia causes porcine pleuropneumoniae, resulting in severe economic losses in the swine industry. Since there are diverse serotypes of APP, it is necessary for vaccines to induce cross-protection. In this report, we developed a bivalent fusion vaccine, the L vaccine composed of ApxIA and ApxIIA fragments. According to the experimental results of the L vaccine, recombinant protein specific-IgG antibody level increased significantly as well as Apx toxin specific-IgG antibody, suggesti...

Focused Dengue Vaccine Development; Outwitting Nature's Design.

The four DENV serotypes are mosquito-borne pathogens that belong to the Flavivirus genus. These viruses present a major global health burden, being endemic in over 120 countries, causing ∼390 million reported infections yearly, with clinical symptoms ranging from mild fever to severe and potentially fatal hemorrhagic syndromes. Development of a safe and efficacious DENV vaccine is challenging because of the need to induce immunity against all 4 serotypes simultaneously, as immunity against one serotype ca...

Prevalence and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species of food origins and their inactivation by specific lytic bacteriophages.

Shigella spp. can be isolated from various food sources and is responsible for many outbreaks and sporadic cases of foodborne diseases worldwide. Although Shigella species are known as one of the major foodborne pathogens, a few studies have characterized the prevalence and molecular basis of antibiotic resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from food origins. This study investigated the prevalence of Shigella spp. in a wide range of food samples (1400 samples), and the phenotypic and genotypic basis of antim...

A Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine to Improve Immunity Against Mumps in Young Adults.

Waning of vaccine-induced immunity is considered to play a central role in the reemergence of mumps among vaccinated young adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate antibody responses and safety of a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR-3) in 150 young adults. Antibody levels were related to a surrogate of protection based on preoutbreak serum antibody levels in 31 persons with and 715 without serological evidence of mumps.

Chemokine Receptor 7 is Essential for Coxiella burnetii Whole-Cell Vaccine Induced Cellular Immunity but Dispensable for Vaccine Mediated Protective Immunity.

Protective immunity against Coxiella burnetii infection is conferred by vaccination with virulent (PI-WCV), but not avirulent (PII-WCV) whole-cell inactivated bacterium. The only well characterized antigenic difference between virulent and avirulent C. burnetii is they have smooth and rough LPS respectively.

Understanding the immunology of the Zostavax shingles vaccine.

Zostavax is a live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine recommended for use in adults >50 years of age to prevent shingles. The main risk factor for the development of shingles is age, which correlates with decreasing cell-mediated immunity. These data suggest a predominant role of T cell immunity in controlling VZV latency. However, other components of the immune system may also contribute. In this review, we will discuss how the immune system responds to Zostavax, focusing on recent studies exa...

The role of international travellers in the spread of CTX-M-15-producing Shigella sonnei in the Republic of Korea.

Multidrug-resistant Shigella isolates have recently emerged as a serious public health threat worldwide. In particular, overseas travel is a risk factor for acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant Shigella strains. To explore the role of travel in the spread of cefotaxime-resistant Shigella sonnei in Korea, we screened 751 Shigella spp. isolates from 2007 to 2016 through the National Surveillance system, and 28 cephalosporin-resistant S. sonnei isolates were identified.

CD4+ T cell cytokine responses to the DAR-901 booster vaccine in BCG-primed adults: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

DAR-901 is an inactivated whole cell tuberculosis booster vaccine, prepared using a new scalable, broth-grown method from the master cell bank of SRL172, a vaccine previously shown to prevent tuberculosis. This study examined whether DAR-901 (a) induces CD4+ T cell cytokine profiles previously proposed as correlates of protection and (b) has a specific vaccine-induced immunological signature compared to BCG or placebo.

Common Genetic Variations Associated with the Persistence of Immunity following Childhood Immunization.

Vaccines have revolutionized public health, preventing millions of deaths each year, particularly in childhood. Yet, there is considerable variability in the magnitude and persistence of vaccine-induced immunity. Maintenance of specific antibody is essential for continuity of vaccine-induced serological protection. We conducted a genome-wide association study into the persistence of immunity to three childhood vaccines: capsular group C meningococcal (MenC), Haemophilus influenzae type b, and tetanus toxoi...

Development of FAcE (Formulated Alhydrogel competitive ELISA) method for direct quantification of OAg present in Shigella sonnei GMMA-based vaccine and its optimization using Design of Experiment approach.

Many formulated vaccines, including 1790GAHB Shigella sonnei GMMA-based vaccine, contain Alhydrogel (aluminum hydroxide), consequently the antigen content must be determined in the formulated final vaccine product, as required by regulatory authorities. The direct quantification of antigens adsorbed on aluminum salts is difficult, and antigens may need to be extracted using laborious and often ineffective desorption procedures. To directly quantify the sugar vaccine target in the LPS of 1790GAHB, we have de...

Isolation, characterization, and PCR-based molecular identification of a siphoviridae phage infecting Shigella dysenteriae.

Shigella dysenteriae is one of the members of Shigella genus which was the main responsible of different Shigellosis outbreaks worldwide. The increasing consumption of antibiotics has led to the emergence and spreading of antibiotic-resistant strains. Therefore, finding new alternatives for infection control is essential, one of which is using bacteriophages.

Prevention and treatment of cervical cancer by a single administration of human papillomavirus peptide vaccine with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as an adjuvant in vivo.

No licensed therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently available, so it remains a high priority to develop a therapeutic HPV vaccine or prophylactic/therapeutic HPV vaccine for cervical cancer. In this current study, we designed an HPV vaccine including CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 as an adjuvant and HPV16 E7 43-77 peptide as antigen, which contains a CD8 T cell epitope (E7 49-57), and two CD4 T cell epitopes (E7 43-77 and E7 50-62). The prophylactic and therapeutic effect on cervical can...

Evaluation of different strategies to promote a protective immune response against leptospirosis using a recombinant LigA and LigB chimera.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic Leptospira species. The vaccines that are currently available are bacterins, with limited human use, that confer short-term, serovar-specific immunity. Lig proteins are considered to be the best vaccine candidates to date. Here, we aimed to construct a recombinant Lig chimera (LC) comprised of LigAni and LigBrep fragments, and to evaluate it as subunit or DNA vaccine using different administration strategies. Vaccines...

Facilitators and barriers of human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young females 18-26 years old in Singapore: A qualitative study.

Around 70% of cervical cancers are caused by Types 16 and 18 of human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines against HPV have been shown to be safe and effective in preventing HPV and cervical cancer.

Recombinant live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses carrying CD8 T-cell epitopes of respiratory syncytial virus protect mice against both pathogens without inflammatory disease.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory disease in young children, elderly and immunocompromised adults. There is no licensed vaccine against RSV although development of an effective and safe RSV vaccine has been a high priority for several decades. Among the various vaccine platforms, the viral-vectored RSV vaccines based on licensed cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) might offer an advantage of inducing adequate mucosal CD8 T cell immunity at the ...

Current issues regarding the application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to mucosal vaccine carriers.

Over the past two decades, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been intensively studied as potential bacterial carriers for therapeutic materials, such as vaccine antigens, to the mucosal tissues. LAB have several attractive advantages as carriers of mucosal vaccines, and the effectiveness of LAB vaccines has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Research on LAB vaccines to date has focused on whether antigen-specific immunity, particularly antibody responses, can be induced. However, with recent developments ...

Clinical endpoints for efficacy studies.

Well-established, validated and clinically meaningful primary and secondary endpoints are critical in advancing vaccines through proof of principal studies, licensure and pre-qualification. To that end, the field of vaccine development for Shigella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as well as other enteric pathogens would benefit greatly from a focused review of clinical endpoints and the use of common endpoints across the field to enable study-to-study comparisons as well as comparative assessments ...

Characterizing Shigella species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in Latin America between 2000-2015.

Shigellosis is the second leading cause of diarrheal death globally. The global burden has been complicated by the emergence of Shigella strains resistant to first line antibiotic treatments such as ciprofloxacin. This study aims to describe the epidemiologic distribution of the most common Shigella species, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (NA) in Latin America.

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