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Showing "Abnormal Microbiome Stunt Preemies Growth" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Abnormal linear growth in paediatric adrenal diseases: Pathogenesis, prevalence and management.

Abnormal adrenal function can interfere with linear growth, potentially causing either acceleration or impairment of growth in paediatric patients. These abnormalities can be caused by direct effects of adrenal hormones, particularly glucocorticoids and sex steroids, or be mediated by indirect mechanisms such as the disturbance of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and aromatization of androgens to oestrogens. The early diagnosis and optimal treatment of adrenal disorders can prevent or mi...

Association between fecal microbiota and generalized anxiety disorder: Severity and early treatment response.

Associations between abnormal gut microbiome compositions and anxiety-like behaviors are well established. However, it is unknown whether the gut microbiome composition is associated with the severity of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and relief from clinical symptoms in patients.

Tumor Microbiome Diversity and Composition Influence Pancreatic Cancer Outcomes.

Most patients diagnosed with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) survive less than 5 years, but a minor subset survives longer. Here, we dissect the role of the tumor microbiota and the immune system in influencing long-term survival. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we analyzed the tumor microbiome composition in PDAC patients with short-term survival (STS) and long-term survival (LTS). We found higher alpha-diversity in the tumor microbiome of LTS patients and identified an intra-tumoral microbiome s...

The impact of microbiome in urological diseases: a systematic review.

The term microbiome is used to signify the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that share our body space, in which there were increasing evidences to suggest that they might have potential roles in various medical conditions. While the study of microbiome in the urinary system is not as robust as the systems included in the Human Microbiome Project, there are still evidences in the literature showing that microbiome may have a role in urological diseases. Therefore, w...

A case of PHACE syndrome with growth hormone deficiency and abnormal thyroid functions.

Background PHACE syndrome is a rare vascular neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies and eye anomalies. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been infrequently described. Case presentation We report a girl with PHACE syndrome. Endocrine abnormalities including abnormal thyroid functions and GHD have recently been described in similar cases. Conclusions This case suggests the necessity to screen pituitary functions in all patients wi...

Flaxseed oil supplementation improves intestinal function and immunity, associated with altered intestinal microbiome and fatty acid profile in pigs with intrauterine growth retardation.

Flaxseed oil (FO), enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is an important oil source for intestinal development and health. We aimed to study the different effects of FO versus soybean oil (SO) on growth, intestinal health and immune function of neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) using a weaned piglet model. Forty pairs of male IUGR and normal birth weight piglets, weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were fed diets containing either 4% FO or SO for 3 weeks consecutively. Growth performance,...

A review of next generation sequencing technologies used in the evaluation of the skin microbiome: what a time to be alive.

The role of the microbiome in healthy and disease states of the human body is progressively being found to extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract and into other organ systems such as the skin. Researching the microbiome thus has become paramount to understanding additional physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that may be at play between microbes and their hosts. Cell cultures have traditionally been used to study the microbiome, but in our current day and age, advanced metagenomic techniques - ...

Differential placental DNA methylation of VEGFA and LEP in small-for-gestational age fetuses with an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio.

In Fetal Growth Restriction 'fetal programming' may take place via DNA methylation, which has implications for short-term and long-term health outcomes. Small-for-gestational age fetuses are considered fetal growth restricted, characterized by brain-sparing when fetal Doppler hemodynamics are abnormal, expressed as a cerebroplacental ratio (CPR)

Dietary quality and the colonic mucosa-associated gut microbiome in humans.

Despite tremendous interest in modulating the microbiome to improve health, the association between diet and the colonic mucosa-associated gut microbiome in healthy individuals has not been examined.

Mutated CEACAMs Disrupt Transforming Growth Factor beta Signaling and Alter the Intestinal Microbiome to Promote Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

We studied interactions among proteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family, which interact with microbes, and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway, which is often altered in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated mechanisms by which CEACAM proteins inhibit TGFB signaling and alter the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis.

Reductionist synthetic community approaches in root microbiome research.

Synthetic community (SynCom) approaches can provide functional and mechanistic insights into how plants regulate their microbiomes, and how the microbiome in turn influences plant growth and health. Microbial cultivation and reconstruction play pivotal roles in this process, which enables researchers to reproducibly investigate the interactions between plants and a major proportion of plant-associated microbes in controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we summarize the emergence, current achievements, and f...

Recoding the metagenome: microbiome engineering in situ.

Synthetic biology has enabled a new generation of tools for engineering the microbiome, including targeted antibiotics, protein delivery, living biosensors and diagnostics, and metabolic factories. Here, we discuss opportunities and limitations in microbiome engineering, focusing on a new generation of tools for in situ genetic modification of a microbiome that hold particular promise in circumventing these limitations.

Host Genetics, Diet, and Microbiome: The Role of AMY1.

Host gene variants selected by diet adaptation have been associated with the microbiome. Poole et al. (Cell Host Microbe 2019;25;553-564.E7) reported that AMY1 copy number, associated with obesity, also impacts microbiome composition and function. Complex genetics-diet-microbiome interactions and their effect on obesity could eventually translate into personalized nutrition.

Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans.

The human gut microbiome can influence health through the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome can influence sleep quality. Previous studies that have examined sleep deprivation and the human gut microbiome have yielded conflicting results. A recent study found that sleep deprivation leads to changes in gut microbiome composition while a different study found that sleep deprivation does not lead to changes in gut microbiome. Accordingly, the relationship between sleep...

Microbiome Learning Repo (ML Repo): A public repository of microbiome regression and classification tasks.

The use of machine learning in high-dimensional biological applications, such as the human microbiome, has grown exponentially in recent years, but algorithm developers often lack the domain expertise required for interpretation and curation of the heterogeneous microbiome datasets. We present Microbiome Learning Repo (ML Repo, available at, a public, web-based repository of 33 curated classification and regression tasks from 15 published human microbiome datasets. We ...

Tiny Hidden Genes within Our Microbiome.

Exploration of tiny protein-coding sequences within the human microbiome reveals thousands of conserved gene families that have been overlooked by traditional analyses. These small proteins may play key roles in the crosstalk among bacteria within the microbiome and in interactions with their human hosts.

Helicobacter pylori antibody and pepsinogen testing for predicting gastric microbiome abundance.

Although the high-throughput sequencing technique is useful for evaluating gastric microbiome, it is difficult to use clinically. We aimed to develop a predictive model for gastric microbiome based on serologic testing.

Enhanced tomato plant growth in soil under reduced P supply through microbial inoculants and microbiome shifts.

Soil microbial communities interact with roots, affecting plant growth and nutrient acquisition. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the effects of the inoculants Trichoderma harzianum T-22, Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ 13134, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 or Pseudomonas sp. RU47 on the rhizosphere microbial community and their beneficial effects on tomato plants grown in moderately low-phosphorous soil under greenhouse condition. We analyzed plant mass, inoculant colony forming units and rhizosphere comm...

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease upper airway microbiome is associated with select clinical characteristics.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disorder associated with lung microbiome dysbiosis. Although the upper airway microbiome is the source of the lung microbiome, the relationships between the oral, nasal, and sputum microbiota are incompletely understood. Our objective was to determine features that differentiate the oral, nasal, and sputum microbiome among subjects with stable COPD.

Influence of the Gut Microbiome, Diet, and Environment on Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal mi...

Ecology and Evolution of Plant Microbiomes.

Microorganisms colonizing plant surfaces and internal tissues provide a number of life-support functions for their host. Despite increasing recognition of the vast functional capabilities of the plant microbiome, our understanding of the ecology and evolution of the taxonomically hyperdiverse microbial communities is limited. Here, we review current knowledge of plant genotypic and phenotypic traits as well as allogenic and autogenic factors that shape microbiome composition and functions. We give specific ...

Environmental conditions and neutral processes shape the skin microbiome of European catfish (Silurus glanis) populations of Southwestern France.

Teleost fishes interact with diverse microbial communities, playing crucial functions for host fitness. While gut microbiome has been extensively studied, skin microbiome has been overlooked. Specifically, there is no assessment of the relative impact of host and environmental factors on microbiome variability as well as neutral processes shaping fish skin microbiome. Here, we assessed the skin microbiome of a Siluriforme, the European catfish (Silurus glanis) sampled in four sites located in Southwestern F...

Microbial regulation of microRNA expression in the brain-gut axis.

The gut microbiome facilitates a consistent transfer of information between the gut and the brain and microRNAs may now represent a key signalling molecule that facilitates this relationship. This review will firstly examine how these small non-coding RNAs influence the gut microbiome, and secondly how the microbiome, when disturbed, may influence miRNA expression in the brain. In addition, we will examine the consequence that microbiome-related changes in miRNA expression have on neurodevelopment, behaviou...

Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Diseases.

For some years, microbiome research has become a thriving topic. The most diverse and hitherto poorly understood connections of interactions of the microbiome with the host body (human) seem to play an important role in the genesis of a wide variety of diseases. This article focuses on the importance of the microbiome in gastrointestinal diseases and presents therapeutic approaches.The intestinal microbiome will not be understood completely for a long time due to the highly complex relationships and variety...

Daily Sampling Reveals Personalized Diet-Microbiome Associations in Humans.

Diet is a key determinant of human gut microbiome variation. However, the fine-scale relationships between daily food choices and human gut microbiome composition remain unexplored. Here, we used multivariate methods to integrate 24-h food records and fecal shotgun metagenomes from 34 healthy human subjects collected daily over 17 days. Microbiome composition depended on multiple days of dietary history and was more strongly associated with food choices than with conventional nutrient profiles, and daily m...

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