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Protein therapeutics based on transcription factors, gene editing enzymes, signaling proteins and protein antigens, have the potential to provide cures for a wide number of untreatable diseases, but cannot be developed into therapeutics due to challenges in delivering them into the cytoplasm. There is therefore great interest in developing strategies that can enable proteins to enter the cytoplasm of cells. In this review article we will discuss recent progress in intracellular protein therapeutics, which a...
Alternative therapeutics for infectious diseases is a top priority, but what infections should be the primary targets? At present there is a focus on therapies for severe infections, for which effective treatment is most needed, but these infections are hard to manage, and progress has been limited. Here, we explore a different approach. Applying an evolutionary perspective to a review of antibiotic prescription studies, we identify infections that likely make a large contribution to resistance evolution ac...
While the therapeutic biologics are dominated by therapeutic proteins, particularly monoclonal antibodies, a wide range of non-protein therapeutic biologics are rapidly gaining ground both in clinical studies and approved products. Many of these first-in-class therapies provide novel treatment modalities and address previously untreatable conditions or undruggable targets. In particular, novel treatments for rare genetic disorders and qualitatively different oncology therapeutics have been approved in the l...
Oligonucleotide therapeutics have emerged as a third distinct platform for drug discovery within the pharmaceutical industry. Five oligonucleotide-based drugs have been approved by the US FDA and over 100 oligonucleotides drugs are currently at different stages of human trials. Several of these oligonucleotide drugs are modified using the phosphorothioate (PS) backbone modification where one of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the phosphodiester linkage is replaced with sulfur. In this review, we summarize o...
Correction to: The Effect of Posture on Intraocular Pressure and Systemic Hemodynamic Parameters in Treated and Untreated Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, by Katsanos, A., Dastiridou, A.I., Quaranta, L., Rulli, E., Riva, I., Dimasi, V., Tsironi, E.E., and Weinreb, R.N. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2017;33(8):598-603. DOI: 10.1089/jop.2017.0030.
In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics.
To study the pharmacological profile of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor subtype mediating contractions in bovine isolated ciliary muscles.
Glycyrrhizin (GLY), an inhibitor of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protects prophylactically against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. However, the therapeutic potential of GLY to enhance an antibiotic has not been tested and is our purpose.
Discovering new therapeutics for human viral diseases is important for combatting emerging infectious viruses and omnipresent circulating viruses as well as those that can become resistant to the drugs we currently have available. The innate host defense peptide (HDP) repertoire present in animals is a wealth of potential antimicrobial agents that could be mined to meet these needs. While much of the body of research regarding HDPs is in the context of bacteria, there is increasing evidence that they can be...
To determine the frequency and economic impact of changing initial glaucoma therapy for patients with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).
Ideal therapeutics have low toxicity and can effectively manage condition(s) or disease(s). The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) marketing category of therapeutics called “medical foods” (MFs) meets such a definition. Medical foods have existed in Federal law since passage the Orphan Drug Act in 1988, which created a category of nutritional therapeutics separate from drugs. Unfortunately, MFs are not widely understood by the medical community or utilized in all patients who need them due to lack of a FD...
The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA).
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a new matrix-regenerating agent (RGTA), Cacicol(®), a polymer that mimics heparan sulfates bound to extracellular matrix proteins, avoiding its proteolysis, to treat neurotrophic keratopathy (NK).
To investigate the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow, and outflow facility, as well as efficacy of IOP-lowering drugs before and after sexual development in rabbits.
To compare the effectiveness of intracameral phenylephrine and topical mydriatics in achieving mydriasis and protecting against complications during phacoemulsification.
Despite potential applications of nucleic acid therapeutics, the lack of effective delivery systems hinders their clinical application. To overcome the barriers to nucleic acid delivery, we previously reported nanoparticles using phospholipid-polyethylenimine conjugates. However, toxicity of polyethylenimine remains as problematic issues. Herein, we proposed to substitute the polyethylenimine with arginine-rich peptide to obtain a less toxic carrier system. Nonaarginine was conjugated to the distal end of p...
To determine the serotonergic (5HT) receptor subtype mediating the contraction of bovine posterior ciliary arteries (BPCAs) in vitro.
Topical administration of the anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporin A (CsA) is recommended for long-term management of dry eye syndrome (DES), yet standard ophthalmic CsA preparations have been reported to be unstable. In this trial, the efficacy and safety of Clacier™ (based on a phase 3 study developed by Huons Co. Ltd.), a novel 0.05% CsA nanoemulsion formulation, are compared with those of the conventional Restasis(®) emulsion.
To evaluate efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (1%)/brimonidine (0.2%) fixed combination (BBFC) in normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
The established molecular heterogeneity of human cancers has had profound effects on the design of cancer therapeutics. Most cancer drugs are today targeted to molecular alterations present in cancer cells. Tumors of the same primary site, however, often differ with regard to the alterations that they harbor. Consequently, this heterogeneity has required the development of new paradigms for clinical development. In this paper we review some clinical trial designs finding active use in co-development of ther...